Marine Biology

, Volume 92, Issue 1, pp 87–91 | Cite as

Parasites of the chaetognath Sagitta setosa in the western English Channel

  • V. Øresland


The temporal occurrence of parasites in Sagitta setosa J. Müller, caught one to three times a month during 1982 and 1983 off Plymouth, England, was investigated. S. setosa was infected by eight parasitic species: one nematode, five trematodes, one cestode and, possibly, one protozoon. Infection by a single parasite, normally found in the body coelom, was the rule. The nematode Hysterothylacium aduncum, as III-stage larva, was by far the most common parasite (56% of all parasites found), followed by the metacercariae of three non-encysted trematodes: Derogenes varicus, a didymozoid species and a Lecithochirium species. Two trematode species new to Chaetognatha were found. The percentage of infected S. setosa specimens ranged from 0 to 7%. Absence or low numbers of parasites from June to November were correlated to the disappearance of large S. setosa and the appearance of a new S. setosa generation. Trematodes may show great annual and seasonal differences in occurrence in S. setosa. No injuries due to parasites were seen. The reproduction of the S. setosa populations off Plymouth did not seem to be affected by parasite infections during 1982–1983.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature cited

  1. Berland, B.: Nematodes from some Norwegian marine fishes. Sarsia 2, 1–50 (1961)Google Scholar
  2. Burfield, S. T.: Sagitta. L. M. B. C. Mem. typ. Br. mar. Pl. Anim. 28, 104 pp. (1927)Google Scholar
  3. Dollfus, R.: Distomes des Chaetognathes. Bull. Inst. marit. Maroc 4, 19–45 (1960)Google Scholar
  4. Furnestin, M.-L.: Chaetognathes et zooplancton du secteur Atlantique Marocain. Revue Trav. Inst. Pêch. marit. 21, 1–356 (1957)Google Scholar
  5. Künne, C.: Untersuchungen über das Großplankton in der Deutschen Bucht und im Nordsylter Wattenmeer. Helgoländer wiss. Meeresunters. 4, 1–54 (1952)Google Scholar
  6. Køie, M.: On the morphology and life-history of Opechona bacillaris (Molin, 1859) Looss, 1907 (Trematoda, Lepocreadiidae). Ophelia 13, 63–86 (1975)Google Scholar
  7. Køie, M.: On the morphology and life-history of Derogenes varicus (Müller, 1874) Looss, 1901 (Trematoda, Hemiuridae). Z. Parasitenkd. 59, 67–78 (1979a)Google Scholar
  8. Køie, M.: On the morphology and life-history of Monascus (=Haplocladus) filiformis (Rudolphi, 1819) Looss, 1907 and Steringophorus furciger (Olsson, 1868) Odhner, 1905 (Trematoda, Fellodistomidae). Ophelia 18, 113–132 (1979b)Google Scholar
  9. Køie, M.: Digenetic trematodes from Limanda limanda (L.) (Osteichthyes, Pleuronectidae) from Danish and adjacent waters, with special reference to their life-histories. Ophelia 22, 201–228 (1983)Google Scholar
  10. Lebour, M. V.: Some parasites of Sagitta bipunctata. J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K. 11, 201–206 (1917)Google Scholar
  11. Lebour, M. V.: A trematode larva from Buccinum undatum and notes on trematodes from post-larval fish. J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K. 11, 514–518 (1918)Google Scholar
  12. Lebour, M. V.: Note on the life history of Hemiurus communis Odhner. Parasitol. 15, 233–235 (1923)Google Scholar
  13. Lebour, M. V.: Hemiurus communis in Acartia. J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K. 20, 371–372 (1935)Google Scholar
  14. Meek, A.: On Sagitta elegans and Sagitta setosa from the Northumbrian plankton, with a note on a trematode parasite. Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 2, 743–776 (1928)Google Scholar
  15. Nagasawa, S. and R. Marumo: Parasites of chaetognaths in Suruga Bay, Japan. La Mer 17, 127–136 (1979)Google Scholar
  16. Øresland, V.: Temporal distribution of size and maturity stages distribution of the chaetognath Sagitta setosa in the western English Channel. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 29, 55–60 (1986)Google Scholar
  17. Pearre, S. Jr.: Gigantism and partial parasitic castration of Chaetognatha infected with larval trematodes. J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K. 56, 503–513 (1976)Google Scholar
  18. Pearre, S. Jr.: Niche modification in Chaetognatha infected with larval trematodes (Digenea). Int. Revue ges. Hydrobiol. 64, 193–206 (1979)Google Scholar
  19. Reimer, L. W., Ch. Berger, B. Heuer, H. Lainka, I. Rosenthal and I. Scharnweber: On the distribution of larvae of Helminths in plankton animals of the North Sea. Parazitologija 5, 542–550 (1971)Google Scholar
  20. Russell, F. S.: On the biology of Sagitta. II. The breeding and growth of Sagitta setosa J. Müller in the Plymouth area. 1930–31, with a comparison with that of S. elegans Verrill. J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K. 18, 147–160 (1932)Google Scholar
  21. Weinstein, M.: Studies on the relationship between Sagitta elegans Verrill and its endoparasites in the southwestern Gulf of St. Lawrence, 202 pp. Ph.D. thesis, McGill University 1973Google Scholar
  22. Wülker, G.: Über Nematoden aus Nordseetieren. II. Zool. Anz. 88, 1–16 (1930)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. Øresland
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyUniversity of StockholmStockholmSweden

Personalised recommendations