Advertisement

Marine Biology

, Volume 29, Issue 3, pp 253–259 | Cite as

Growth and reproductive cycles of the marine fouling ascidians Ciona intestinalis, Styela plicata, Botrylloides violaceus, and Leptoclinum mitsukurii at Aburatsubo-Moroiso Inlet (central Japan)

  • M. Yamaguchi
Article

Abstract

Experimental cultivations of post-metamorphosis juveniles were repeated in different seasons for Ciona intestinalis (L.) and Styela plicata (Lesueur) (simple ascidians) as well as for Leptolinum mitsukurii (Oka) and Botrylloides violaceus Oka (compound ascidians) at Aburatsubo-Moroiso Inlet near Misaki Biological Station (Japan). Growth in body length of simple ascidians was exponential during juvenile development up to near sexual maturity. C. intestinalis grew to sexual maturity in 1 month in summer and in 2 months in winter; S. plicata, in 2 months in summer and in nearly 5 months in winter. The doubling time decreased approximately twofold in the two simple ascidians with a 10C° increase in environmental temperature. Growth of colonies in compound ascidians was exponential after maturation of the first functional zooids. Sexual reproduction of L. mitsukurii and B. violaceus was continuous throughout the year, forming many generations in a year. Doubling time of colony growth in the two compound ascidians decreased approximately threefold with a 10C° increase in temperature.

Keywords

Japan Body Length Doubling Time Sexual Reproduction Environmental Temperature 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Anonymous: Marine fouling and its prevention, 388 pp. Annapolis: U. S. Naval Institute 1952Google Scholar
  2. Berrill, N. J.: The development and growth of Ciona. J. mar. biol. Ass. U. K. 26, 616–625 (1947a)Google Scholar
  3. —: The developmental cycle of Botrylloides. Q. Jl microsc. Sci. 88, 393–407 (1947b)Google Scholar
  4. —: The Tunicata, 354 pp. London: Ray Society 1950Google Scholar
  5. Dybern, B. I.: The life cycle of Ciona intestinalis (L.) f. typica in relation to the environmental temperature. Oikos 16, 109–131 (1965)Google Scholar
  6. Eldredge, L. G.: A taxonomic review of Indo-Pacific didemid ascidians and descriptions of twenty-three central Pacific species. Micronesica 2, 161–261 (1966)Google Scholar
  7. Georges, D.: La lumiere et le declenchement de la ponte chez Ciona intestinalis. In: Fourth European marine biology symposium, pp 561–569. Ed. by D. J. Crisp. London: Cambridge University Press 1971Google Scholar
  8. Goodbody, I.: Continuous breeding in three species of tropical ascidian. Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 136, 403–409 (1961)Google Scholar
  9. Grave, C.: The larva of Styela (Cynthia) partita: structure, activity and duration of life. J. Morph. 75, 173–188 (1944)Google Scholar
  10. Hirai, E.: Morphological observations of ascidian larvae. 4. Styela plicata (Lesueur). Bull. biol. Stn Asamushi 9, 21–22 (1958)Google Scholar
  11. —: On the breeding seasons of invertebrates in the neighborhood of the Marine Biological Station of Asamushi. Scient. Rep. Tôhoku Univ. (Ser. IV, Biol.) 29, 369–375 (1963)Google Scholar
  12. Huus, J.: The effect of light on the spawning in ascidians. Avh. norske Vidensk-Akad. Oslo (Mat. naturv. Kl.) 4, 5–49 (1939)Google Scholar
  13. Kanatani, H., T. Hidaka and M. Onosaka: On the spawning season and growth of the ascidian, Styela plicata, in Aburatsubo Bay. [In Japanese, English abstract]. Zool. Mag., Tokyo 73, 108–111 (1964)Google Scholar
  14. Kazihara, T.: Ecological studies on marine fouling animals. [In Japanese, English summary]. Bull. Fac. Fish. Nagasaki Univ. 16, 1–138 (1964)Google Scholar
  15. Kitazawa, T.: Asexual reproduction in Leptoelinum mitsukurii (Oka) (Ascidiae Compositae). Sci. Rep. Tokyo Kyoiku Daig. (Sect. B) 13, 31–50 (1967)Google Scholar
  16. Lambert, C. C. and C. L. Brandt: The effect of light on the spawning of Ciona intestinalis. Biol. Bull. mar. biol. Lab., Woods Hole 132, 222–228 (1967)Google Scholar
  17. Lambert, G.: The general ecology and growth of a solitary ascidian, Corella willmeriana. Biol. Bull. mar. biol. Lab., Woods Hole 135, 296–307 (1968)Google Scholar
  18. Millar, R. H.: The annual growth and reproductive cycle in four ascidians. J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K. 31, 41–61 (1952)Google Scholar
  19. Sabbadin, A.: Il ciclo biologico di Ciona intestinalis (L), Molgula manhattensis (De Kay) e Styela plicata (Lesueur) nella Laguna Veneta. Archo Oceanogr. Limnol. 11, 1–28 (1957)Google Scholar
  20. Tokioka, T.: Ascidiacea, [In Japanese] In: Illustrated encyclopedia of the fauna of Japan, Vol. 3. pp 108–130. Tokyo: Hokuruy-Kan 1964Google Scholar
  21. Whittingham, D. G.: Light-induction of shedding of gametes in Ciona intestinalis and Molgula manhattensis. Biol. Bull. mar. biol. Lab., Woods Hole 132, 292–298 (1967)Google Scholar
  22. Yamaguchi, M.: Spawning periodicity and settling time in ascidians, Ciona intestinalis and Styela plicata. Rec. oceanogr. Wks Japan 10, 147–155 (1970)Google Scholar
  23. —: Natural substrata of marine, fouling animals. Sci. Rep. Yokosuka Cy Mus. 18, 110–121 (1971)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Yamaguchi
    • 1
  1. 1.Marine LaboratoryUniversity of GuamAganaUSA

Personalised recommendations