Advertisement

Marine Biology

, Volume 31, Issue 1, pp 79–86 | Cite as

The epibionts of Sargassum muticum in British waters

  • R. G. Withers
  • W. F. Farnham
  • S. Lewey
  • N. A. Jephson
  • J. M. Haythorn
  • P. W. G. Gray
Article

Abstract

This study was initiated by suggestions that the Japanese brown alga Sargassum muticum (Yendo) Fensholt, recently found to be invading shores along the eastern Solent (Southern England), might replace certain common native plants, to the possible detriment of local epibiont communities. Eighty animal, 52 plant and 9 fungal species have been identified from S. muticum plants collected at four different localities. Animal fouling was most conspicuous on permanently submerged plants growing along the edge of floating harbour installations. Algal epibionts were most numerous and varied on S. muticum from tidal lagoons on a well-scoured but sheltered rocky shore. Most of the epibionts colonised the perennial portions of the plants, close to the holdfast. A few settled along the fronds in summer, but none were found in the region of the secondary and tertiary apical meristems. Seasonal variations in the abundance and diversity of algal epibionts were observed; most were restricted to summer, but winter and all-year-round species were also noted. Fungal studies on S. muticum have isolated only saprophytic species, which are also common locally on other Phaeophyceae. Overall, these data suggest that S. muticum can support a considerable epibiota and, therefore, its introduction seems unlikely to result in a significant change in local epiphyte communities.

Keywords

Seasonal Variation Fungal Species Native Plant Apical Meristem Brown Alga 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Abbott, I.A. and W.J. North: Temperature influences on floral composition in California coastal waters, In: Proc. int. Seaweed Symp. (7, Sapporo). pp 72–79. Ed. by K. Nisizawa. Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press 1972Google Scholar
  2. Anonymous: Japanese seaweed sails in. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 4 (6), p. 85 (1973a)Google Scholar
  3. Anonymous: Sargassum spreads, and long vigil begins. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 4 (7), p. 100 (1973b)Google Scholar
  4. Anonymous: Clearing Sargassum. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 4 (12), p. 180 (1973c)Google Scholar
  5. Barnes, R.S.K., J. Coughlan and N.J. Holmes: A preliminary survey of the macroscopic bottom fauna of the Solent, with particular reference to Crepidula fornicata and Ostrea edulis. Proc. malac. Soc. Lond. 40, 253–275 (1973)Google Scholar
  6. Chapman, A.R.O. and E.M. Burrows: Field and culture studies of Desmarestia aculeata (L.) Lamour. Phycologia 10, 63–76 (1971)Google Scholar
  7. Conover, J.T. and J. McN. Sieburth: Effects of Sargassum distribution on its epibiota and antibacterial activity. Botanica mar. 6, 147–157 (1964)Google Scholar
  8. Cribb, A.B. and J.W. Cribb: Marine fungi from Queensland — II. Pap. Dep. Bot. Univ. Qd 3, 97–105 (1956)Google Scholar
  9. Druehl, L.D.: Marine transplantations. Science, N.Y. 179, p. 12 (1973)Google Scholar
  10. Farnham, W.F., R.L. Fletcher and L.M. Irvine: Attached Sargassum found in Britain. Nature, Lond. 243, 231–232 (1973)Google Scholar
  11. — and E.B.G. Jones: The eradication of the seaweed Sargassum muticum from Britain. Biol. Conserv. 6, 57–58 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Friedrich, H.: Marine biology [Transl. from German by G. Vevers], 474 pp. London: Sidgwick & Jackson 1969Google Scholar
  13. Holmes, N.J.: The ascidian fauna of Southampton Water. Central Electricity Res. Lab. Note No. RD/L/N 187/71 (1971). (Internal publication)Google Scholar
  14. Jones, E.B.G. and W.F. Farnham: Japweed; new threat to British coasts. New Scient. 60, 394–395 (1973)Google Scholar
  15. Kohlmeyer, J.: Fungi from the Sargasso Sea. Mar. Biol. 8, 344–350 (1971)Google Scholar
  16. —: Parasitic Haloguignardia oceanica (ascomycetes) and hyperparasitic Sphaceioma cecidii sp. nov. (deuteromycetes) in drift Sargassum in North Carolina. J. Elisha Mitchell scient. Soc. 88, 255–259 (1972)Google Scholar
  17. — and E. Kohlmeyer: Icones fungorum maris, Vol. I. Fasc. 1–7. Weinheim/Lehre: J. Cramer 1964–1969Google Scholar
  18. ——: Synoptic plates of higher marine fungi. An identification guide for the marine environment, 3rd ed. 87 pp. Lehre: J. Cramer 1971Google Scholar
  19. Marine Biological Association: Plymouth marine fauna, 3rd ed. 457 pp. Plymouth: Marine Biological Assoc. 1957Google Scholar
  20. Marshall, W.: An underwater study of the epiphytes of Laminaria hyperborea (Gunn.) Fosl. Br. phycol. Bull. 2, 18–19 (1960)Google Scholar
  21. Martinez Nadal, N.G., L.V. Rodriguez and C. Casillas: Isolation and characteristation of sarganin complex, a new broad-spectrum antibiotic isolated from marine algae. In: Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy 1964, pp 131–134. New York: American Society of Microbiology 1964Google Scholar
  22. Morton, J. and M. Miller: The New Zealand sea shore, 638 pp. London & Auckland: Collins 1968Google Scholar
  23. Norton, T.A.: An ecological study of the fauna inhabiting the sublittoral marine alga Saccorhiza polyschides (Lightf.) Batt. Hydrobiologia 37, 215–231 (1971)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. — and E.M. Burrows: Studies on marine algae of the British Isles: 7. Saccorhiza polyschides (Lightf.) Batt. Br. phycol. J. 4, 19–53 (1969)Google Scholar
  25. Ogino, C.: Tannins and vacuolar pigments. In: Physiology and biochemistry of algae, pp 437–443. Ed. by R. Lewin. New YOrk & London: Academic Press 1962Google Scholar
  26. Parke, M. and P.S. Dixon: Check-list of British marine algae — second revision. J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K. 48, 783–832 (1968)Google Scholar
  27. Ryland, J.S.: The association between Polyzoa and algal substrata. J. Anim. Ecol. 31, 331–338 (1962)Google Scholar
  28. —: Observations on some epibionts of Gulf-weed, Sargassum natans (L.) Meyen. J. exp. mar. Biol. Ecol. 14, 17–25 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Setchell, W.A.: Hong-Kong seaweeds, II. Hong-kong Nat. 2, 237–253 (1931)Google Scholar
  30. Setzer, R. and C. Link: The wanderings of Sargassum muticum and other relations. Stomatopod 2, 5–6 (1971)Google Scholar
  31. Sieburth, J. McN. and J.T. Conover: Sargassum tannin, an antibiotic which retards fouling. Nature, Lond. 208, 52–53 (1965)Google Scholar
  32. South, G.P. and E.M. Burrows: Studies on the marine algae of the British Isles: 5. Chorda filum (L.) Stackh. Br. phycol. Bull. 3, 379–402 (1967)Google Scholar
  33. Stubbings, H.G. and D.R. Houghton: The ecology of Chichester Harbour, S. England, with special reference to some fouling species. Int. Revue ges. Hydrobiol. 49, 233–279 (1964)Google Scholar
  34. Tubaki, K.: Studies on the Japanese marine fungi, lignicolous group (III), algicolous group and a general consideration. Ann. Rep. Inst. Fermentation, Osaka 4, 12–41 (1969)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. G. Withers
    • 1
    • 2
  • W. F. Farnham
    • 1
  • S. Lewey
    • 1
  • N. A. Jephson
    • 1
  • J. M. Haythorn
    • 1
  • P. W. G. Gray
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesPortsmouth PolytechnicPortsmouthEngland
  2. 2.Marine LaboratoryPortsmouth PolytechnicHayling IslandEngland

Personalised recommendations