Oecologia

, Volume 59, Issue 1, pp 135–140 | Cite as

Individual flowering phenology, plant size, and reproductive success in Linanthus androsaceus, a California annual

  • Johanna Schmitt
Original Papers

Summary

For natural selection to shape population flowering phenologies, individual phenological variation must be correlated with variation in reproductive success. I therefore marked and followed individual plants of Linanthus androsaceus (a California grassland annual) throughout the flowering season, recording individual flowering phenology, flower number, mortality, and seed production. Although date of first flowering was unrelated to number of flowers, plants first flowering during an intermediate interval had a greater probability of setting seed, and a stronger relationship between seed number and flower number, than plants first flowering early or late in the season. The actual distribution of first flowering date in the population was clustered around this intermediate interval. In contrast with first flowering date, flowering duration was correlated with flower number, with a positively skewed distribution that reflected the skewed size structure of the population. The combined distributions of individual flowering dates and furations resulted in an overall population flowering curve that was skewed to the right. Within individual quadrats, Linanthus density was positively correlated with skewness if the quadrat flowering phenology curve, and negatively correlated with the percentage of plants in bloom at flowering peak. Thus, although individual variation in first flowering date was related to reproductive success in L. androsaceus, the size dependence of flowering duration provides a mechanism whereby ecological factors can shape population flowering phenologies without evolutionary change.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abbott RJ (1976) Variation within common groundsel, Senecio vulgaris L. I. Genetic response to spatial variation of the environment. New Phytol 76:153–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Antonovics J, Levin DA (1981) The ecological and genetic consequences of density-dependent regulation in plants. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 11:411–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arroyo MTK, Armesto JT, Villagran C (1981) Plant phenological patterns in the High Andean Cordillera of Central Chile. J Ecol 69:205–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Augsperger CK (1980) Mass flowering of a tropical shrub (Hybanthus prunifolius): influence on pollinator attraction and movement. Evolution 34:475–488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Augsperger CK (1981) Reproductive synchrony of a tropical shrub: experimental studies on effects of pollinators and seed predators on Hybanthus prunifolius (Violaceae). Ecology 62:775–788CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bullock SH, Bawa KS (1981) Sexual dimorphism and the annual flowering pattern in Jacaratia dolichaula (D. Smith) Woodson (Caricaceae) in a Costa Rican rain forest. Ecology 62:1494–1504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chiariello NR (1981) The adaptive significance of phenology and allocation in seasonal races of a grassland annual. Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford UniversityGoogle Scholar
  8. Clausen J, Hiesey WM (1958) Experimental studies on the nature of species. IV. Genetic structure of ecological races Carnegie Institute of Washington Pub. No. 615Google Scholar
  9. Clay K, Shaw R (1981) An experimental demonstration of densitydependent reproduction in a natural population of Diamorpha smallii, a rare annual. Oecologia (Berlin) 51:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cohen D (1971) Maximizing final yield when growth is limited by time or by limiting resources. J Theor Ecol 33:299–307Google Scholar
  11. Cohen D (1976) The optimal timing of reproduction. Amer Natur 110:801–807CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Denholm JV (1975) Necessary condition for maximum yield in a senescing two-phase plant. J Theor Biol 52:251–254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Frankie GW, Baker HG, Opler PA (1974) Comparative phenological studies of trees in tropical wet and dry forests in the lowlands of Costa Rica. J Ecol 62:881–919CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Heinrich B (1976) Flowering phenologies: bog, woodland, and disturbed habitats. Ecology 57:890–899CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Grant V, Grant K (1965) Flower Pollination in the Phlox Family. New York: Columbia University PressGoogle Scholar
  16. Gottlieb LD (1977) Genotypic similarity of large and small individuals in a natural population of the annual plant Stephanomeria exigua ssp. coronaria (Compositae). J Ecol 65:127–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gross RS, Werner PA (1982) Relationships among flowering phenology, insect visitors, and seed set: experimental studies on four co-occurring species of goldenrod (Solidago: Compositae). Ecol Monog 53:95–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Harper JL (1977) Population Biology of Plants. London: Academic PressGoogle Scholar
  19. Jones ME (1971) The population genetics of Arabidopsis thaliana. II. Population structure. Heredity 27:51–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. King D, Roughgarden J (1982) Multiple switches between vegetative and reproductive growth in annual plants. Theor Pop Biol 21:194–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lubbers A (1982) Temporal and spatial variation in ovule number and seed production in a forest spring ephemeral, Thalictrum thalictroides. Ph.D. dissertation, Duke UniversityGoogle Scholar
  22. McIntyre GI, Best KF (1978) Studies on the flowering of Thlaspi arvense L. Genetic and ecological differences between earlyand late-flowering strains. Botanical Gazette 139:190–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. McNeilly T, Antonovics J (1968) Evolution in closely adjacent populations. IV. Barriers to gene flow. Heredity 23:205–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Paltridge GW, Denholm JV (1974) Plant yield and the switch from vegetative to reproductive growth. J Theor Biol 44:23–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Parrish JAD, Bazzaz FA (1979) Difference in pollination niche relationships in early and late successional plant communities. Ecology 60:597–610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Paterniani E (1969) Selection for reproductive isolation between two populations of maize, Zea mays L. Evolution 23:534–547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Poole RW, Rathcke BJ (1979) Regularity, randomness, and aggregation in flowering phenologies. Science 203:470–471PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Primack RB (1980) Variation in the phenology of natural populations of montane shrubs in New Zealand. J Ecol 68:849–862CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rabinowitz D, Rapp JK, Sork VL, Rathcke BJ, Reese GA, Weaver JC (1981) Phenological properties of wind- and insect-pollineated prairie plants. Ecology 62:49–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Schemske DJ (1977) Flowering phenology and seed set in Claytonia virginica (Portulaceae). Bull Torr Bot Cl 104:253–263Google Scholar
  31. Schemske DJ, Willson MF, Melampy MN, Miller LJ, Verner L, Schemske KM, Best LB (1978) Flowering ecology of some spring woodland herbs. Ecology 59:351–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Schmitt J (1980) Pollinator foraging and evolution in flowering plant populations. Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford UniversityGoogle Scholar
  33. Solbrig OT (1981) Studies on the population biology of the genus Viola. II. The effect of plant size on fitness in Viola sororia. Evolution 35:1080–1093CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Stiles EG (1977) Coadapted competitors: the flowering seasons of hummingbird-pollinated plants in a tropical forest. Science 198:1177–1178PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Thomson JD (1980) Skewed flowering distributions and pollinator attraction. Ecology 61:572–579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Vincent TL, Pulliam HR (1980) Evolution of life history strategies for an asexual plant model. Theor Pop Biol 17:215–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Waser NM (1978) Competition for hummingbird pollination and sequential flowering in two Colorado wildflowers. Ecology 59:934–944CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Waser NM (1979) Pollinator availability as a determinant of flowering time in Ocotillo (Fouquiera splendens). Oecologia 39:107–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Werner PA (1975) Predictions of fate from rosette size in teasel (Dipsacus fullonum L). Oecologia 20:197–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Woodell SRJ, Mooney HA, Lewis H (1975) The adaptation to serpentine soils in California of the annual species Linanthus androsaceus (Polemoniaceae). Bull Torr Bot Cl 102:232–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wyatt R (1981) The reproductive biology of Asclepias tuberosa. II. Factors determining fruit set. New Phytol 88:375–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Zimmerman M (1980) Reproduction in Polemonium: competition for pollinators. Ecology 61:497–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Johanna Schmitt
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesStanford UniversityStanfordUSA

Personalised recommendations