The role of the glycosaminoglycan layer in bladder defense mechanisms and interstitial cystitis

Abstract

The bladder surface glycosaminoglycan layer is an important defense mechanism for the transitional epithelium. It allows adaptation to the constant exposure to urine, and controls the permeability of urinary substances to the transitional cell. This layer seems to be impaired in some patients with interstitial cystitis.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. 1.

    Parsons CL, Stauffer CW, Schmidt JD. Reversible inactivation of bladder surface glycosaminoglycan antibacterial activity by protamine sulfate. Infect Immun 1988;56:1341–1343

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Uehling DT, Mizutani K, Balish E. Effect of immunization on bacterial adherence to urothelium. Invest Urol 1978;16:145–147

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Cox CE, Hinman F Jr. Experiments with induced bacteriuria, vesical emptying and bacterial growth on the mechanism of bladder defense to infection. J Urol 1961;86:739–748

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Hinman F Jr, Cox CE. The voiding vesical defense mechanism: the mathematical effect of residual urine, voiding interval and volume on bacteriuria. J Urol 1966;96:491–498

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Parsons CL, Greenspans C, Mulholland S. The primary antibacterial defense mechanism of the bladder. Invest Urol 1975;13:72–76

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Shrom SH, Parsons CL, Mulholland SG. Role of urothelial surface mucoprotein in intrinsic bladder defense. J Urol 1977;9:526–533

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Gill WB, Ruggiero K, Straus FH. Crystallization studies in a urothelial-lined living test tube (the catheterized female rat bladder): I. Calcium oxalate crystal adhesion to the chemically injured rat bladder. Invest Urol 1979;17:257–261

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Gill WB, Jones KW, Ruggiero KJ. Protective effects of heparin and other sulfated glycosaminoglycans on crystal adhesion to injured urothelium. J Urol 1982;127:152–154

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Parsons CL, Stauffer C, Schmidt JD. Bladder surface glycosaminoglycans: an efficient mechanism of environmental adaptation. Science 1980;208:605–607

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Hanno PM et al. The protective effect of heparin in experimental bladder infection. J Surg Res 1978;25:324–309

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Parsons CL. Prevention of urinary tract infection by the exogenous glycosaminoglycans sodium pentosanpolysulfate. J Urol 1982;127:167–169

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Parsons CL, Pollen J, Anwar H, Stauffer C, Schmidt J. Antibacterial activity of bladder surface mucin duplicated in the rabbit by exogenous glycosaminoglycan (sodium pentosanpolysulfate). Infect Immun 1980;27:876–881

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Parsons CL, Mulholland S, Anwar H. Antibacterial activity of bladder surface mucin duplicated by exogenous glycosaminoglycan (heparin). Infect Immun 1979;24:552–557

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Mueller SC, Thueroff JW, Rumpelt HJ. Urothelial leukoplakia: new aspects of etiology and therapy. J Urol 1987;137:979–983

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Parsons CL. Successful management of radiation cystitis with sodium pentosanpolysulfate. J Urol 1986;136:813–814

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Parsons CL, Mulholland S. Successful therapy of interstitial cystitis with pentosanpolysulfate. J Urol 1987;138:513–516

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Parsons CL, Schmidt J, Pollen J. Successful treatment of interstitial cystitis with sodium pentosanpolysulfate. J Urol 1983;130:51–53

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Synthetic water-soluble polymers in solution. E. A. Bekturov and Z. Kh. Bakauvoa (eds.). Hüthig & Wepf Verlag, New York, pp 38–54, 1986

    Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Menter JM, Hurst RE, Nakamura N, West SS. Thermodynamics of mucopolysaccharide-dye binding. III. Thermodynamic and cooperativity parameters of acridine orange-heparin system. Biopolymers 1979;18:493–505

    Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Menter JM, Hurst RE, Corliss DA, West SS, Abrahamson EW. Structural basis for the anticoagulant activity of heparin II. Relationship of anticoagulant activity to the thermodynamics of fluorescence fading kinetics of acridine orange-heparin complexes. Biochemistry 1979;18:4288–92

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Parsons CL, Stauffer C, Schmidt J. Impairment of antibacterial effect of bladder surface mucin by protamine sulfate. J Infect Dis 1981;144:180

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Parsons CL, Danielson B, Fellstrom B. Inhibition of uric acid crystal adherence by bladder surface and urinary glycosaminoglycans. Pathogenese und Klinik der Harnsteine XI. Stein-Kopff Verlag Darmstadt 1985;35.

  23. 23.

    Kaufman J, Anderson K, Parsons CL. Inactivation of antiadherence effect of the bladder surface glycosaminoglycans as a possible mechanism for carcinogenesis. Urology 1987;30:255–258

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Dixon JS, Holm-Bentzen M, Gilpin CJ, Gosling JA, Bostofte E, Hald T, Larsen S. Electron microscopic investigation of the bladder urothelium and glycocalyx in patients with interstitial cystitis. J Urol 1986;135:621–625

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Cornish J, Nickel JC, Vanderwee M, Costerton JW. Ultrastructural visualization of human bladder mucous. Urol Res 1990;18:263–266

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Gryte CC, Gregor HP. Poly-(styrene sulfonic acid)-poly-(vinylidene fluoride) interpolymer ion-exchange membranes. J Polym Sci Polym Phys Ed 1976;14:1839–1854

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Gregor HP. Fixed-charge ultrafiltration membranes. In: Selegny E, ed. Charged gels and membranes. Holland: D Reider;1976;Part I, 235

    Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Gregor HP. Anticoagulant activity of sulfonate polymers and copolymers. In: Gregor HP, ed. Polymer science and technology vol 5. New York: Plenum Press, 1975:51

    Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Hurst RE, Jennings GC, Lorincz AE. Partition techniques for isolation and fractionation of urinary glycosaminoglycans. Anal Biochem 1977;79:502–512

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Menter JM, Hurst RE, Corliss DA, West SS, Brahamson EW. Structural basis for the anticoagulant activity of heparin. II. Relationship of anticoagulant activity to the thermodynamics of fluorescence fading kinetics of acridine orange-heparin complexes. Biochemistry 1979;18:4388–4392

    Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Hurst RE, Rhodes SW, Adamson PB, Parsons CL, Roy JB. Functional and structural characteristics of the glycosaminoglycan layer of the bladder luminal surface. J Urol 1987;138:433–437

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Parsons CL, Boychuk D, Jones S, Hurst R, Callahan H. Bladder surface glycosaminoglycan: an epithelial permeability barrier. J Urol 1990;143:139–142

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Lilly JD, Parsons CL. Bladder surface glycosaminoglycans: a human epithelial permeability barrier. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1990;171:493–496

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Hohlbrugger G, Lentsch P. Intravesical ions, osmolality and pH influence the volume pressure response in the normal rat bladder, and this is more pronounced after DMSO exposure. Eur Urol 1985;11:127–130

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Mulholland SG, Hanno P, Parsons CL, Sant GR, Staskin DR. Pentosan polysulfate sodium for therapy of interstitial cystitis: a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical study. Urology 1990;35:552–558

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Lose G, Frandsen B, Hojensgard JC, Jespersen J, Astrup T. Chronic interstitial cystitis: increased levels of eosinophil cationic protein in serum and urine and an ameliorating effect of subcutaneous heparin. Scand J Urol Nephrol 1983;17:159–161

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Gillenwater JY, Wein AJ. Summary of the National Institute of Arthritis, Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases Workshop on Interstitial Cystitis, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, August 28–29, 1987. J Urol 1988;140:203–206

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Parsons CL, Hurst R. Decreased urinary uronic acid levels in individuals with interstitial cystitis. J Urol 1990;143:690–693

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Parsons CL, Stein P. Role of toxic urine in interstitial cystitis. J Urol 1990;143:373A (Abstract)

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Dr C. Lowell Parsons.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Parsons, C.L. The role of the glycosaminoglycan layer in bladder defense mechanisms and interstitial cystitis. Int Urogynecol J 4, 373–379 (1993). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00387392

Download citation

Keywords

  • Glycosaminoglycan layer
  • Interstitial cystitis
  • Transitional cell