Oecologia

, Volume 62, Issue 3, pp 305–309 | Cite as

Intrinsic rate of increase, body size, and specific metabolic rate in marine mammals

  • O. J. Schmitz
  • D. M. Lavigne
Original Papers

Summary

Hennemann (1983) provided empirical support for McNab's (1980) hypothesis that a higher specific metabolic rate (SMR) in mammals translates into a higher intrinsic rate of increase (r m ). However, the few marine mammals in Hennemann's data base were excluded from any detailed analyses because their “high rates of metabolism but only average or low values of r m ” (p. 106) were thought to reflect trade-offs between maintenance and production necessary to compensate for heat loss in aquatic environments (Hennemann 1983, also see McNab 1980).

To investigate further the relationships among r m , body size, and specific metabolic rate in marine mammals (pinnepeds, sirenians, and cetaceans), r m was estimated for 37 populations using published life-history data and Cole's (1954) equation (Hennemann 1983). Estimates of r m in relation to body size in marine mammals were generally within the 95% confidence limits calculated for terrestrial mammals using Hennemann's data. Contrary to Hennemann's (1983) observations, eight of these populations had an r m which was higher in relation to body size than predicted by the average terrestrial mammalian relationship. Furthermore, for marine mammal populations where suitable data were available, r m was correlated with specific metabolic rate (r=0.85, P≦0.035) and all the estimates were again within the 95% confidence limits established from data for terrestrial mammals (Hennemann 1983). It is premature, therefore, to reject the hypothesis that marine mammals do not differ significantly from terrestrial mammals in their allocation of energy for maintanance and reproduction.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Blueweiss L, Fox H, Kudzma V, Nakashima D, Peters R, Sams S (1978) Relationships between body size and some life history parameters. Oecologia (Berlin) 37:257–272Google Scholar
  2. Bonner N (1979a) Antarctic (Kerguelen) Fur seal. In: Mammals in the Seas, FAO Fisheries Series 5, vol 2. Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN, RomeGoogle Scholar
  3. Bonner N (1979a) Harbour (Common) seal. In: Mammals in the Seas FAO Fisheries Series 5 vol 2. Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN, RomeGoogle Scholar
  4. Bonner N (1979c) Largha seal. In: Mammals in the Seas, FAO Fisheries Series 5 vol. 2. Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN, RomeGoogle Scholar
  5. Bonner N (1981) Grey seal, Halichoerus grypus Fabricius, 1791. In: SH Ridgway, Harrison RJ (ed) Handboook of Marine Mammals, vol 2. Academic Press, Toronto, pp 111–144Google Scholar
  6. Calder WA (1982) A trade-off between space and time: dimensional constants in mammalian ecology. J theor Biol 98:393–400Google Scholar
  7. Cole LC (1954) The population consequences of life history phenomena. Quart Rev Biol 29:103–137CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. DeMaster D (1979) Weddell seal. In: Mammals in the Seas, FAO Fisheries Series 5 vol. 2. Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN, RomeGoogle Scholar
  9. De Master D (1981) Estimating the average age of first birth in marine mammals. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 38:237–239Google Scholar
  10. Fay FH (1982) Ecology and biology of the Pacific warlrus, Odobenus rosmarus divergens, Illiger. North American Fauna 74. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Washington, p 280Google Scholar
  11. Fedak MA, Anderson SA (1982) The energetics of lactation: accurate measurements from a large, wild mammal, the Grey seal (Halichoerus grypus). J Zool (Lond) 198:473–479Google Scholar
  12. Fedak MA, Anderson SA, Harwood J (1981) The energetics of the Grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) in European waters: energy flow and management implications. Final Report to the Commission of the European Communities ENV 405-80-UK(B), p 43Google Scholar
  13. Fenchel T (1974) Intrinsic rate of natural increase: the relationship with body size. Oecologia (Berlin) 14:317–326Google Scholar
  14. Gallivan GJ (1981) Ventilation and gas exchange in unrestrained Harp seals (Phoca groenlandica) Comp Biochem Physiol 69A:809–813CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gaskin DE (1982) The ecology of whales and dolphins. Heinemann, London, p 458Google Scholar
  16. Gaskin DE, Blair BA (1977) Age determination of harbour porpoise, Phocena phocena, in the western North Atlantic. Can J Zool 55:18–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Gunther B (1975) Dimensional analysis and theory of biological similarity. Physiol Rev 55:659–699PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Hennemann WW (1983) Relationship among body mass, metabolic rate and the intrinsic rate of natural increase in mammals. Oecologia (Berlin) 56:104–108Google Scholar
  19. Hofman RJ (1979) Leopard seal. In: Mammals in the Seas, FAO Fisheries Series 5, vol 2. Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN, RomeGoogle Scholar
  20. Innes S, Ronald K (1981) Preliminary estimates on the cost of swimming in three species of phocid seal. Fourth Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, San FransiscoGoogle Scholar
  21. Irving L (1973) Aquatic mammals. In: GC Whittow (ed) Comparative Physiology of Thermoregulation, vol. 3. Academic Press Inc NY, pp 47–97Google Scholar
  22. Kanwisher JW, Ridgway SH (1983) The physiological ecology of whales and porpoises. Sci Am 248:110–120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Kasuya T (1977) Age determination and growth of the Baird's beaked whale with a comment on foetal growth rate. Sci Rep Whales Res Inst 29:1–20Google Scholar
  24. Kasuya T (1978) The life history of the Dall's porpoise with special reference to the stock off the Pacific coast of Japan. Sci Rep Whales Res Inst 30:1–63Google Scholar
  25. Kasuya T, Brownell RL (1979) Age determination, reproduction and growth of the Franciscana dolphin, Pontoporia blainvillei. Sci Rep Whales Res Inst 31:45–68Google Scholar
  26. Kasuya T, Kureha K (1979) The populaion of the finless porpoise in the Inland Sea of Japan. Sci Rep Whales Res Inst 31:1–44Google Scholar
  27. Kasuya T, Miyazaki N, Dawbin WH (1974) Growth and reproduction of Stenella attenuata in the Pacific coast of Japan. Sci Rep Whales Res Inst 26:157–226Google Scholar
  28. Kleiber M (1975) The fire of life: an introduction to animal energetics. RE Krieger Publ Co NY, p 435Google Scholar
  29. Kooyman GL, Kerem DH, Campbell WB, Wright JJ (1973) Pulmonary gas exchange in freely diving Weddell seals, Leptonychotes weddelli. Respir Physiol 17:283–290PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Lander (1979) Alaskan or Northern Fur seal. In: Mammals in the Seas, FAO Fisheries Series 5 vol 2. Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN, RomeGoogle Scholar
  31. Lavigne DM (1979) The harp seal. In: Mammals in the Seas, FAO Fisheries Series 5 vol 2. Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN, RomeGoogle Scholar
  32. Lavigne DM (1982) Similarity in energy budgets of animal populations. J Animal Ecol 51:195–206Google Scholar
  33. Lavigne DM, Barchard W, Innes S, Øritsland NA (1982) Pinniped bioenergetics. In: Mammals in the Seas, FAO Fisheries Series 5, vol 4. Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN, RomeGoogle Scholar
  34. Laws RM (1979) Crabeater seal. In: Mammals of the Seas, FAO Fisheries Series 5, vol. 2. Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN, RomeGoogle Scholar
  35. LeBoeuf B (1979) Northern Elephant seal. In: Mammals of the Seas, FAO Fisheries Series 5, vol 2. Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN, RomeGoogle Scholar
  36. Lindstedt SL, Calder WA (1981) Body size, physiological time, and longevity of homeothermic animals. Quart Rev Biol 56:1–16Google Scholar
  37. Ling JK, Bryden MM (1981) Southern Elephant seal Mirounga leonina. In: Ridgway SH, Harrison RJ (ed) Handbook of Marine Mammals, vol 2. Academic Press, toronto, pp 297–328Google Scholar
  38. Lockyer C (1976) Body weights of some species of large whales. J Cons Int Explor Mer 36:71–81Google Scholar
  39. Lockyer C (1978) A preliminary investigation on age, growth and reproduction of the Sei whale off Iceland. Rep Int Whal Commn 28:237–241Google Scholar
  40. Lockyer C, Brown SG (1979) A review of recent biological data for the Fin whale population off Iceland. Rep Int Whal Commn 29:185–189Google Scholar
  41. Mansfield AW, Beck B (1977) The Grey seal in eastern Canada. Fish Mar Serv Tech Rep 704Google Scholar
  42. Mansfield AW, Smith TG, Beck B (1975) The Narwhal, Monodon monoceros, in eastern Canadian waters. J Fish Res Board Can 32:1041–1046Google Scholar
  43. Mate B, Gentry RL (1979) Northern (Stellar) sea lion. In: Mammals in the Seas, FAO Fisheries Series 5, vol 2. Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN, RomeGoogle Scholar
  44. Matsuura DT, Whittow CG (1973) Oxygen uptake of the California sea lion and Harbour seal during exposure to heat. Am J Physiol 225:711–715PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. McLaren IA (1967) Seals and group selection. Ecology 48:104–110Google Scholar
  46. McNab BK (1978) The comparative energetics of neotropical marsupials. J Comp Physiol 125:115–128Google Scholar
  47. McNab BK (1980) Food habits, energetics, and the population biology of mammals. Amer Nat 116:106–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Miyazaki N (1977) On the growth and reproduction of Stenella coeruleoalba off the Pacific coast of Japan. Sci Rep Whales Res Inst 29:21–48Google Scholar
  49. Odell DK (1975) Status and aspects of the life history of the Bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus, in florida. J Fish Res Board Can 32:1055–1058Google Scholar
  50. Ohsumi S, Masaki Y (1975) Biological parameters of the Antarctic Minke whale at the virginal population level. J Fish Res Board Can 32:995–1004Google Scholar
  51. Payne MR (1979) Growth in the Antarctic Fur seal, Arctocephalus gazella. J Zool Lond 187:1–20Google Scholar
  52. Perrin WF, Holts DB, Miller RB (1977) Growth and reproduction of the eastern Spinner dolphin, a geographical form of Stenella longirostris in western tropical Pacific. Fish Bull 75:725–750Google Scholar
  53. Peters RH (1983) The ecological implications of body size. Cambridge University Press, NY, p 330Google Scholar
  54. Platt T, Silver W (1981) Ecology, physiology, allometry and dimensionality. J theor Biol 93:855–860PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Popov (1979) Caspian seal. In: Mammals in the Seas, FAO Fisheries Series 5, vol 2. Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN, romeGoogle Scholar
  56. Scholander PF (1940) Experimental investigations on the respiratory function in diving mammals and birds. Hvalradets Shrifter 22:1–131Google Scholar
  57. Scholander PF, Irving L (1941) Experimental investigations on the respiration and diving of the Florida manatee. J Cell Comp Physiol 17:169–191Google Scholar
  58. Scholander PF, Hock R, Walters V, Irving L (1950) Adaptation to cold in arctic and tropical mammals and birds in relation to body temperature, insulation and basal metabolic rate. Biol Bull 99:259–271PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Sergeant DE (1962) The biology of the pilot or pothead whale, Globicephala melaena, in Newfoundland waters. Fish Res Board Can Bull 132, p 84Google Scholar
  60. Sergeant DE (1979) Hooded seal. In: Mammals in the Seas, FAO Fisheries Series 5, vol 2. Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN, RomeGoogle Scholar
  61. Sergeant DE, St Aubin DJ, Geraci JR (1980) Life history and northwest Atlantic status of the Atlantic White-sided dolphin, Lagenorhyncus acutus. Cetology 37:1–12Google Scholar
  62. Smith CC (1976) When and how much to reproduce: the trade-off between power and efficiency. Amer Zool 16:763–774Google Scholar
  63. Southwood TRE (1976) Bionomic strategies and population parameters. In: RM May (ed) Theoretical Ecology Principles and Applications. Sinauer Associates Inc Publishers Sunderland, pp 30–52Google Scholar
  64. Stewart REA (1983) Behavioural and energetic aspects of reproductive effort in female harp seals Phoca groenlandica. PhD Thesis, U of Guelph, Guelph OntGoogle Scholar
  65. Stirling I (1979) Ribbon seal. In: Mammals in the Seas, FAO Fisheries Series 5, vol 2. Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN, RomeGoogle Scholar
  66. Stirling I, Calvert W (1979) Ringed seal. In: Mammals in the Seas, FAO Fisheries Series 5, vol 2. Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN, RomeGoogle Scholar
  67. Taylor WD (1978) Maximum growth rate, size and commonness in a community of bactivorous ciliates. Oecologia (Berlin) 36:263–272Google Scholar
  68. Vaz Ferreira R (1979) South American sea lion. In: Mammals in the Seas, FAO Fisheries Series 5, vol 2. Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN, RomeGoogle Scholar
  69. Watson L (1981) Sea guide to the whales of the world. Nelson Canada Ltd. Toronto, p 302Google Scholar
  70. Zar JE (1974) Biostatistical analysis. Prentice-Hall, Toronto, p 620Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • O. J. Schmitz
    • 1
  • D. M. Lavigne
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyUniversity of GuelphGuelphCanada

Personalised recommendations