Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 9, Issue 8, pp 639–653 | Cite as

Toward the development of a multidimensional scale for improving evaluations of Business Ethics

  • R. E. Reidenbach
  • D. P. Robin


This study represents an improvement in the ethics scales inventory published in a 1988 Journal of Business Ethics article. The article presents the distillation and validation process whereby the original 33 item inventory was reduced to eight items. These eight items comprise the following ethical dimensions: a moral equity dimension, a relativism dimension, and a contractualism dimension. The multidimensional ethics scale demonstrates significant predictive ability.


Economic Growth Business Ethic Predictive Ability Relativism Dimension Scale Inventory 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bayles, Michael D. and Kenneth Henley: 1983, Right Conduct: Theory and Applications (Random House, New York).Google Scholar
  2. Beauchamp, Tom: 1982, Philosophical Ethics (McGraw Hill Book Company, New York).Google Scholar
  3. Beauchamp, Tom L. and Norman E. Bowie: 1983, Ethical Theory and Business, 2nd ed. (Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J.).Google Scholar
  4. Brandt, Richard: 1959, Ethical Theory (Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey).Google Scholar
  5. Browning, John and Noel B. Zabriskie: 1983, ‘How Ethical Are Industrial Buyers?’, Journal of Marketing 42 (July), 69–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Campbell, Donald T. and Donald W. Fiske: 1959, ‘Convergent and Discriminant Validation by the Multitraitmultimethod Matrix’, Psychological Bulletin 56 (March), 81–105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Churchill, Gilbert A.: 1979, ‘A Paradigm for Developing Better Measures of Marketing Constructs’, Journal of Marketing Research XVI (February), 64–73.Google Scholar
  8. DeGeorge, Richard R.: 1986, Business Ethics, 2nd ed. (MacMillan Publishing Company, New York).Google Scholar
  9. Donaldson, Thomas and Patricia H. Werhane: 1983, Ethical Issues in Business, 2nd ed. (Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J.).Google Scholar
  10. Dornoff, Ronald J. and Clint B. Tankersley: 1975, ‘Perceptual Differences in Market Transactions: A Source of Consumer Frustration’, Journal of Consumer Affairs (Summer), 97–103.Google Scholar
  11. Ferrell, O. C. and Larry G. Gresham: 1985, ‘A Contingency Framework for Understanding Ethical Decision-making in Marketing’, Journal of Marketing 49 (Summer), 87–96.Google Scholar
  12. George, Richard J.: 1985, ‘The Ethical Perceptions of Present and Future Corporate Executives’, Proceedings of the Southwest Marketing Association Conference (March), 143–146.Google Scholar
  13. Harrell, Gilbert D. and Peter D. Bennett: 1974, ‘An Evaluation of the Expectancy Value Model of Attitude Measurement for Physician Prescribing Behavior’, Journal of Marketing Research XI (August), pp. 269–278.Google Scholar
  14. Hawkins, Del I. and Benton Cocanougher: 1972, ‘Student Evaluations of the Ethics of Marketing Practices: The Role of Marketing Education’, Journal of Marketing 36 (April), 54–61.Google Scholar
  15. Heeler, Roger M. and Michael L. Ray: 1972, ‘Measure Validation in Marketing’, Journal of Marketing Research XIII (November), 456–464.Google Scholar
  16. Hoffman, W. Michael and Jennifer Mills Moore: 1984, Business Ethics: Readings and Cases in Corporate Morality (McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York).Google Scholar
  17. Hunt, Shelby D. and Scott Vitell: 1986, ‘A General Theory of Marketing Ethics’, Journal of Macromarketing 6 (Spring), 5–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kant, Immanuel: 1964, Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals, Translation by H. J. Paton (Harper and Row Publishers, New York).Google Scholar
  19. Kerlinger, Fred N.: 1986, Foundations of Behavioral Research, 3rd ed. (Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York).Google Scholar
  20. Kohlberg, Lawrence: 1964, ‘Development of Moral Character and Moral Ideology’, Review of Child Development Research, L. W. Hoffman, ed. (Russell Sage Foundation, N.Y.).Google Scholar
  21. Kohlberg, Lawrence: 1976, ‘Moral Stages and Moralization: The Cognitive Development Approach’, in Moral Development and Behavior: Theory Research and Social Issues, Thomas Lickona, ed. (Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, N.Y.).Google Scholar
  22. Kristol, Irving: 1978, ‘A Capitalist Conception of Justice’, in Ethics, Free Enterprise and Public Policy: Original Essays on Moral Issues in Business, Richard T. DeGeorge and Joseph A. Pichler, eds. (Oxford University Press, Oxford, England).Google Scholar
  23. Krugman, Dean M. and O. C. Ferrell: 1981, ‘The Organizational Ethics of Advertising: Corporate and Agency Views’, Journal of Advertising 10, No. 1, 21–30, 48.Google Scholar
  24. Nozick, Robert: 1974, Anarchy, State and Utopia (Basic Books, Inc., New York).Google Scholar
  25. Nunnally, Jum C.: 1967, Psychometric Methods (McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York).Google Scholar
  26. Rawls, John: 1971, A Theory of Justice (The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass.).Google Scholar
  27. Reidenbach, R. Eric and Donald P. Robin: 1988, ‘Some Initial Steps Toward Improving the Measurement of Ethical Evaluations of Marketing Activities’, Journal of Business Ethics 7, 871–879.Google Scholar
  28. Rest, James R.: 1979, In Judging Moral Issues (University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis).Google Scholar
  29. Robertson, Thomas S. and James H. Meyers: 1969, ‘Personality Correlation of Opinion Leadership and Innovation Buying Behavior’, Journal of Marketing Research VI (May), 164–168.Google Scholar
  30. Robin, Donald P. and R. Eric Reidenbach: 1987, ‘Social Responsibility, Ethics, and Marketing Strategy: Closing the Gap Between Concept and Application’, Journal of Marketing 51 (January), 44–58.Google Scholar
  31. Ross, William: 1930, The Right and Good (Clarendon Press, Oxford).Google Scholar
  32. Sartorios, Rolf E.: 1975, Individual Conduct and Social Norms: A Utilitarian Account of Social Union and Rule of Law (Dickenson Publishing, Belmont, California).Google Scholar
  33. Singer, Peter: 1976, ‘Freedom and Utility in the Distribution of Health Care’, in Ethics and Health Policy, R. Veatch and R. Bronson, eds. (Boelinger Publishing, Cambridge, Mass.).Google Scholar
  34. Smart, J. J. C.: 1973, ‘Distribution, Justice and Utilitarianism’, in Justice and Economic Distribution, John Arthur and William H. Shaw, eds. (Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey).Google Scholar
  35. Stace, W. T.: 1937, The Concept of Morals (The MacMillan Company, New York).Google Scholar
  36. Trevino, Linda Klebe: 1986, ‘Ethical Decision Making in Organizations: A Person-situation Interactionist Model’, Academy of Management Review 11, 601–617.Google Scholar
  37. Wilson, David T., H. Lee Mathews and James W. Harvey: 1975, ‘An Empirical Test of the Fishbein Behavioral Intention Model’, Journal of Consumer Research 1 (March), 39–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. E. Reidenbach
    • 1
  • D. P. Robin
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Southern MississippiHattiesburgUSA

Personalised recommendations