Oecologia

, Volume 62, Issue 2, pp 230–233 | Cite as

Temperature prediction and the timing of sex in aphids

  • S. A. Ward
  • S. R. Leather
  • A. F. G. Dixon
Original Papers

Summary

The aphid life cycle contains a series of parthenogenetic, viviparous generations, followed usually by a sexual generation that produces resistant overwintering eggs. Since the decision to produce sexually-reproducing offspring ends the period of rapid growth of the clone, it should be postponed as late as is compatible with successful oviposition. The time of leaf fall determines the latest possible time of oviposition, and is itself determined mainly by daylength. The time required for the development of the final generations of aphid depends on temperature. The decision to end the sequence of parthenogenetic generations should thus depend on temperature and photoperiod. This paper calculates the optimal combination of daylength and temperature for the cueing of this decision in Rhopalosiphum padi. It is shown that the experimental data of Dixon and Glen (1971) are in agreement with the predictions, and that, in the field, the time of production of male R. padi does vary adaptively with July temperature.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Blackman RL (1975) Photoperiodic determination of the male and female sexual morphs of Myzus persicae. J Insect Phys 21:435–453Google Scholar
  2. Cohen D (1967) Optimizing reproduction in a randomly varying environment when a correlation may exist between the conditions at the time a choice has to be made and the subsequent outcome. J theor Biol 16:1–14Google Scholar
  3. Dixon AFG, Glen D (1971) Morph determination in the bird charry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi L. Ann appl Biol 68:11–21Google Scholar
  4. Gilbert N, Gutierrez AP, Frazer BD, Jones RE (1976) Ecological relationships. Freeman, ReadingGoogle Scholar
  5. Lamb RJ, Pointing PJ (1972) Sexual morph determination in the aphid Acyrhosiphon pisum. J Insect Phys 18:2029–2042Google Scholar
  6. Leather SR (1980) Aspects of the ecology of the bird cherry-oat aphid Rhopalosiphum padi L. Unpublished PhD thesis. University of East AngliaGoogle Scholar
  7. Leather SR (1982) Do gynoparae and males need to feed? An attempt to allocate resources in the bird cherry-oat aphid Rhopalosiphum padi. Ent Exp et Appl 31:386–390Google Scholar
  8. Lees AD (1959) The role of photoperiod and temperature in the determination of the parthenogenetic and sexual forms in the aphid Megoura viciae Buckton. I. The influence of these factors on apterous virginoparae and their progeny. J Insect Phys 3:92–117Google Scholar
  9. Lees AD (1960) The role of photoperiod and temperature in the determination of parthenogenetic and sexual forms in the aphid Megoura viciae Buckton. II. The operation of the ‘interval timer’ in young clones. J Insect Phys 4:154–175Google Scholar
  10. MacGillivray ME, Anderson GB (1964) The effect of photoperiod and temperature on the production of gamic and agamic forms in Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas). Can J Zool 42:491–510Google Scholar
  11. Manley G (1974) Central England temperatures: monthly means from 1965 to 1973. Q J Roy Met Soc 100:389–405Google Scholar
  12. Tsitsipis JA, Mittler TE (1976) Influence of temperature on the production of parthenogenetic and sexual females by Aphis fabae under short-day conditions. Ent Exp et Appl 19:179–188Google Scholar
  13. Tsitsipis JA, Mittler TE (1977a) Influence of daylength on the production of parthenogenetic and sexual females of Aphis fabae at 17.5°. Ent Exp et Appl 21:163–173Google Scholar
  14. Tsitsipis JA, Mittler TE (1977b) Influence of temperature and daylength on the production of males by Aphis fabae. Ent Exp et Appl 21:229–237Google Scholar
  15. Vince Prue D (1975) Photoperiodism in plants. McGraw-Hill, LondonGoogle Scholar
  16. Walters KFA, Dixon AFG (1984) The effect of temperature and wind on the flight activity of cereal aphids. Ann appl Biol 104:17–26Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. A. Ward
    • 1
  • S. R. Leather
    • 2
  • A. F. G. Dixon
    • 3
  1. 1.Vakgroep Theoretische TeeltkundeLandbouwhogeschoolWageningenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Northern Research StationForestry CommissionRoslinUK
  3. 3.School of Biological SciencesUniversity of East AngliaNorwichUK

Personalised recommendations