Oecologia

, Volume 73, Issue 2, pp 170–177 | Cite as

Effects of habitat and season on competitive interactions between roach (Rutilus rutilus) and perch (Perca fluviatilis)

  • L. Persson
Original Papers

Summary

The competitive interactions between two distantly related fish species, roach (Rutilus rutilus) and perch (Perca fluviatilis), were studied in enclosures in two habitats. In the open water habitat dominated by small planktonic prey perch grew more slowly and altered its diet from zooplankton to benthic macroinvertebrates when in the presence of roach. No effect, however, of perch on roach was observed. This was probably caused by the higher foraging efficiency of roach on zooplankton (laboratory experiments) and to the presence of a resource utilizable only by roach, bluegreen algae/detritus. In the littoral habitat no interspecific effects were detected even though resources were more limiting. This was probably a consequence of the higher densities of chironomids, on which perch fed more efficiently than roach, and of the presence of bluegreen algae/detritus. Roach, which consumed a larger spectrum of food types than perch, as a result was less affected by competition. The distributions of the species in the lake corresponded to what could be predicted from experiments. The degree of resource limitation varied with season and was highest in summer, while no resource limitation was observed in spring. This variation in resource limitation is probably caused by the increased metabolic demands of the fish in summer.

Key words

Competition Habitat Season Temperature Fish 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Andersson G (1984) The role of fish in lake ecosystems — and in limnology. In: Bosheim S, Nicholls M (eds) Interaksjoner mellan trofiske nivåer i ferskvann, pp 189–197. Nordisk limnologisymposium, Oslo, 1984Google Scholar
  2. Botrell HH, Duncan A, Gliwich ZM, Grygierik E, Herzig A, Hillbrich-Ilkowska A, Kurasawa H, Larsson P, Weglenska T (1975) A review of some problems in zooplankton production studies. Norw J Zool 24:419–456Google Scholar
  3. Brown JH, Davidson DW, Reichman OJ (1979) An experimental study of competition between seed-eating desert rodents and ants. Amer Zool 19:1129–1143Google Scholar
  4. Carpenter FL (1979) Competition between hummingbirds and insects for nectar. Amer Zool 19:1104–1114Google Scholar
  5. Case TJ (1981) Coevolution in resource-limited competition communities. Theor Pop Biol 21:69–91Google Scholar
  6. Christiansen FB, Fenchel TM (1977) Theories of Populations in Biological Communities. Springer Verlag, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  7. Confer JL, Blades PI (1975) Omnivorus zooplankton and planktivorous fish. Limnol Oceanogr 20:571–579Google Scholar
  8. Connell JH (1975) Some mechanisms producing structure in natural communities: a model and evidence from field experiments. In: Cody ML, Diamond JR (eds) Ecology and Evolution of Communities. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass, pp 460–490Google Scholar
  9. Connell JH (1980) Diversity and the coevolution of competitors, or the ghost of competition past. Oikos 35:131–138Google Scholar
  10. Connell JH (1983) On the prevalence and relative importance of interspecific competition: Evidence from field experiments. Am Nat 122:661–696Google Scholar
  11. Drenner RW, Strickler JR, O'Brien WJ (1978) Capture probability: The role of zooplankton escape in the selective feeding of planktivorous fish. J Fish Res Board Can 35:1370–1373Google Scholar
  12. Eadie JMcA, Keast A (1982) Do goldeneye and perch compete for food? Oecologia (Berlin) 55:225–230Google Scholar
  13. Eriksson MOG (1979) Competition between freshwater fish and goldeneyes Bucephala clangula (L.) for common prey. Oecologia (Berlin) 41:99–107Google Scholar
  14. Fänge R, Grove D (1979) Digestion. In: Hoar WS, Hoar DJ, Brett JR (eds) Fish Physiology Vol VIII, Academic Press, New York, pp 161–260Google Scholar
  15. Fish GR (1960) The comparative activity of some digestive enzymes in the alimentary canal of Tilapia and Perch. Hydriobiol 15:161–178Google Scholar
  16. Grant PR (1972) Convergent and divergent character displacement. Biol J Linn Soc 4:39–68Google Scholar
  17. Grant PR (1986) Interspecific competition in fluctuating environments. In: Diamond JR, Case TJ (eds) Community Ecology, Harper and Row, pp 173–191Google Scholar
  18. Holling CS (1959) Some characteristics of simple types of predation and parasitism. Can Ent 91:385–398Google Scholar
  19. Hurlbert SH (1984) Pseudoreplication and the design of ecological field experiments. Ecol Monogr 54:187–211Google Scholar
  20. Johansson L, Persson L (1986) The fish community of temperate, eutrophic lakes. In: Riemann B, Røndergaard M (eds) Carbon Dynamics of Eutrophic, Temperate Lakes. Elsevier Scientific Publishers, Amsterdam, pp 237–266Google Scholar
  21. Kapoor BG, Smit H, Verighina IA (1975) The alimentary canal and digestion in teleosts. In: Russell F, Younge M (eds) Advances in Marine Biology Vol 13, Academic Press, London, pp 109–239Google Scholar
  22. Keast A (1977) Diet overlaps and feeding relationships between the year classes in the yellow perch (Perca flavescens). Env Biol Fish 2:53–70Google Scholar
  23. Lawlor LL, Maynard Smith J (1976) The coevolution and stability of competing species. Am Nat 110:79–99Google Scholar
  24. Lessmark O (1983) Competion between perch (Perca fluviatilis) and roach (Rutilus rutilus) in South Swedish lakes. Ph D thesis. University of LundGoogle Scholar
  25. Levins R (1979a) Coexistence in a variable environment. Am Nat 114:765–783Google Scholar
  26. Levins R (1979b) Asymmetric competition among distant taxa. Amer Zool 19:1097–1104Google Scholar
  27. MacArthur RH (1972) Geographical Ecology: Patterns in the Distribution of Species. Harper and Row, New York, USAGoogle Scholar
  28. MacArthur RH, Levins R (1967) The limiting similarity, convergence and divergence of coexisting species. Am Nat 101:377–385Google Scholar
  29. May RM, MacArthur RH (1972) Niche overlap as a function of environmental variability. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 69:1109–1113Google Scholar
  30. Nilsson N-A (1960) Seasonal fluctuations in the food segragation of trout, char and white fish in 14 North-Swedish lakes. Rep Inst Freshwat Res Drottningholm 41:185–205Google Scholar
  31. Pacala SW, Roughgarden J (1982) Relation between resource partitioning and interspecific competition in two twospecies insular Anolis lizard communities. Science 217:444–446Google Scholar
  32. Persson L (1983a) Food consumption and competition between age classes in a perch Perca fluviatilis population in a shallow eutrophic lake. Oikos 40:197–207Google Scholar
  33. Persson L (1983b) Food consumption and the significance of detritus and algae to intraspecific competition in roach Rutilus rutilus in a shallow eutrophic lake. Oikos 41:118–125Google Scholar
  34. Persson L (1983c) Effects of intra- and interspecific competition on dynamics and size structure of a perch Perca fluviatilis and a roach Rutilus rutilus population. Oikos 41:126–132Google Scholar
  35. Persson L (1986a) Effects of reduced interspecific competition on resource utilization in perch (Perca fluviatilis). Ecology 67:355–364Google Scholar
  36. Persson L (1986b) Temperature-induced shift in foraging ability in two fish species; roach (Rutilus rutilus) and perch (Perca fluviatilis) — Implications for coexistence between poikilotherms. J Anim Ecol 55:829–840Google Scholar
  37. Persson L (1987) The effects of resource availability and distribution on size class interactions in perch (Perca fluviatilis). Oikos 48:148–160Google Scholar
  38. Riemann B, Søndergaard M, Persson L, Johansson L (1986) Carbon metabolism and community regulation in eutrophic, temperate lakes. In: Riemann B, Søndergaard M (eds) Carbon Dynamics of Eutrophic, Temperate Lakes. Elsevier Scientific Publishers, Amsterdam, pp 267–280Google Scholar
  39. Rotenberry JT, Wiens JA (1981) Morphological size ratios and competition in ecological communities. Am Nat 117:592–599Google Scholar
  40. Roughgarden J (1976) Resource partitioning among competing species — A coevolutionary approach. Theor Pop Biol 9:338–424Google Scholar
  41. Roughgarden J (1979) Theory of Populations Genetics and Evolutionary Ecology: An Introduction. MacMillan Publishing Co, Inc, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  42. Schluter D (1986) Character displacement between distantly related taxa? Finches and bees in the Galápagos. Am Nat 127:95–102Google Scholar
  43. Schoener TW (1982) The Anolis fauna of the Biminis: resource partitioning in a complex fauna. Ecology 49:704–726Google Scholar
  44. Schoener TW (1982) The controversy over interspecific competition. Am Sci 70:586–595Google Scholar
  45. Schoener TW (1983) Field experiments on interspecific competition. Am Nat 122:240–285Google Scholar
  46. Schoener TW, Schoener A (1978) Inverse relation of survival of lizards with island size and avifaunal richness. Nature 274:685–687Google Scholar
  47. Simberloff D (1982) The status of competition theory in ecology. Ann Zool Fenn 19:241–253Google Scholar
  48. Simberloff D (1983) Competition theory, hypothesis-testing, and other community ecological buzzwords. Am Nat 122:626–635Google Scholar
  49. Smith RJ, Holbrook SJ (1986) Seasonally fluctuating resources and temporal variability of interspecific competition. Oecologia (Berlin) 69:1–11Google Scholar
  50. Stenson JAE (1979) Predatory-prey relations between fish and invertebrate prey in some forest lakes. Rep Inst Freshwat Res Drottningholm 58:166–183Google Scholar
  51. Strong DR (1980) Null hypotheses in ecology. Synthèse 43:271–285Google Scholar
  52. Terborgh J, Faaborg J (1980) Saturation of bird communities in the West Indies. Am Nat 116:178–195Google Scholar
  53. Turreli M (1981) Niche overlap and invasion of competitors in random environments I. Models without demographic stochasticity. Theor Pop Biol 20:1–56Google Scholar
  54. Ware DM (1972) Predation by rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri): the influence of hunger, prey density, and prey size. J Fish Res Board Can 29:1193–1201Google Scholar
  55. Werner EE (1986) Species interactions in freshwater fish communities. In: Diamond JR, Case TJ (eds) Community Ecology, Harper and Row, pp 344–357Google Scholar
  56. Werner EE, Hall DJ (1979) Foraging efficiency and habitat switching in competing sunfishes (Centrarchidae). Ecology 60:256–264Google Scholar
  57. Wiens JA (1977) On competition and variable environments. Am Sci 65:590–597Google Scholar
  58. Winfield IJ, Peirson G, Cryer M, Townsend CR (1983) The behavioral basis of prey selection by underyearling bream (Abramis brama (L.)) and roach (Rutilus rutilus (L.)). Freshwat Biol 13:139–149Google Scholar
  59. Wright SJ (1981) Extinction-mediated competition: the Anolis lizards and insectivorous birds of the West Indies. Am Nat 117:181–192Google Scholar
  60. Zaret TM, Rand AS (1971) Competition in tropical stream fishes: support for the competitive exclusion principle. Ecology 52:336–342Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. Persson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of EcologyFish Ecology Research GroupLundSweden

Personalised recommendations