Advertisement

Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology

, Volume 94, Issue 4, pp 472–495 | Cite as

Post-caldera dacites from the Santorini volcanic complex, Aegean Sea, Greece: an example of the eruption of lavas of near-constant composition over a 2,200 year period

  • Michael Barton
  • Joep P. P. Huijsmans
Article

Abstract

The post-caldera Kameni islands of the Santorini volcanic complex, Aegean Sea, Greece are entirely volcanic and were formed by eleven eruptions between 197 B.C. and 1950. Petrographic, mineral chemical and whole-rock major and trace element data are presented for samples of lava collected from the products of seven eruptive cycles which span the entire period of activity. The main phenocryst phases are plagioclase, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene and titaniferous magnetite, which are weakly zoned (e.g. plagioclase — An55 to An42). The lavas are typical calc-alkaline dacites and show a restricted range of composition (from 64.1 to 68.4 wt. % SiO2). The phenocrysts were in equilibrium with the melts at temperatures of 960–1012 °C, pressures of 800–1500 bars and oxygen fugacities of 10−9.6-10−9.9 bars. The pre-eruptive water content of the magmas was 3–4 wt. % but since the lavas contain only 0.1–0.4 wt. % H2O, a considerable amount (about 0.01–0.015 km3) of water was lost prior to or during eruption. This indicates that the magmas rose to the surface gradually allowing the (largely) non-explosive loss of volatiles. The lavas were probably extruded initially from more or less cylindrical conduits which developed into fissures as the eruptions proceeded. The post-caldera lavas evolved from more mafic parental magmas (basalt-andesite) via fractional crystallization. The small range of compositional variation shown by these lavas can be explained in terms of near-equilibrium crystallization. Analyses of samples of lavas belonging to single eruption cycles and to individual flows indicate that the underlying magma chamber is compositionally zoned. The average composition of erupted magma has remained approximately constant since 1570 A.D. but that fact that the 197 B.C. magma was sligthly richer in SiO2 provides additional evidence that the magma chamber is compositionally zoned. Crystal settling has not affected the composition of the magma over a 2,200 year period of time which indicates that the melts do not behave as Newtonian fluids. Zonation was thus probably established prior to the 197 B.C. eruption though it is possible that it is developed and maintained by crystal-liquid differentiation processes other than crystal settling (e.g. boundary layer crystallization). The data indicate that there has been no significant cooling during 2,200 years; the maximum amount of cooling is <50 °C and is probably less than ∼30 °C. Two hypotheses are considered to explain the thermal and chemical buffering of the post-caldera magma chamber: (i) The magma chamber is large and heat losses due to conduction are largely compensated by latent heat supplied by thick, partially crystalline cumulate sequences. (ii) Periodic influx of hot mafic magma, which does not mix with the dacitic magma, inhibits cooling. The second alternative is favored because the post-caldera lavas differ geochemically from the pre-caldera lavas which signifies that a new batch of magma was formed and/or emplaced after the catastrophic eruption of 1390 B.C., and hence that mafic magmas may still be reaching upper crustal levels.

Keywords

Magma Chamber Mafic Magma Trace Element Data Titaniferous Magnetite Dacitic Magma 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Barberi F, Innocenti F, Marinelli C, Mazzuoli R (1977) Vulcanismo e tettonica a placche: esempi nell' area mediterranea. Mem Soc Geol It 13:327–358Google Scholar
  2. Barton M, Van Bergen MJ (1981) Green pyroxenes and associated phases in a potassium-rich lava from the Leucite Hills Wyoming. Contrib Mineral Petrol 77:101–114Google Scholar
  3. Barton M, Salters VJM, Huijsmans JPP (1983) Sr-isotope and trace element evidence for the role of continental crust in calc-alkaline volcanism on Santorini and Milos, Aegean Sea, Greece. Earth Planet Sci Lett 63:273–291Google Scholar
  4. Blot C (1978) Volcanism and seismicity in Mediterranean island arcs. In: Doumas C (ed) Thera and the Aegean World 1, London, pp 33–44Google Scholar
  5. Bottinga Y, Weill DF (1970) Densities of liquid silicate systems calculated from partial molar volumes of oxide components. Am J Sci 269:169–182Google Scholar
  6. Bottinga Y, Weill DF (1972) The viscosity of magmatic silicate liquids: A model for calculation. Am J Sci 272:438–475Google Scholar
  7. Bowen, NL (1913) The melting phenomena of the plagioclase feldspars. Am J Sci 34:577–599Google Scholar
  8. Briqueu L, Lancelot JR (1984) A geochemical study of Nea Kameni hyalodacites (Santorini volcano, Aegean Island Arc). Inferences concerning the origin and effects of solfataras and magmatic evolution. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 20:41–54Google Scholar
  9. Bryan WB, Finger LW, Chayes F (1969) Estimating proportions in petrographic mixing calculations by least-squares approximation. Science 163:926–927Google Scholar
  10. Burnham CW, Jahns RH (1962) A method for determining the solubility of water in silicate melts. Am J Sci 260:721–745Google Scholar
  11. Burnham CW, Holloway JR, Davis NF (1969) Thermodynamic properties of water to 1,000° C and 1,000 bars. Geol Soc Am Spec Pap 132:1–96Google Scholar
  12. Carmichael ISE (1967) The iron-titanium oxides of salic volcanic rocks and their associated ferromagnetisian silicates. Contrib Mineral Petrol 14:36–64Google Scholar
  13. Carmichael ISE, Nicholls J, Spera F, Wood BJ, Nelson, SA (1977) High temperature properties of silicate liquids: applications to the equilibration and ascent of basic magma. Phil Trans R Soc London A 286:373–431Google Scholar
  14. Di Paola, GM (1974) Volcanology and petrology of Nisyros Island (Dodecanese, Greece). Bull Volcanol 38:944–987Google Scholar
  15. Eggler DH (1972) Water-saturated and undersaturated melting relations in a Paricutin andesite and an estimate of water contents in the natural magma. Contrib Mineral Petrol 34:261–271Google Scholar
  16. Eichelberger JC (1975) Origin of andesite and dacite: Evidence of mixing at Glass Mountain in California and at other circumPacific volcanoes. Bull Geol Soc Am 86:1381–1391Google Scholar
  17. Ewart A (1979) A review of the mineralogy and chemistry of Tertiary-Recent, dacitic, latitic, rhyolitic, and related salic volcanic rocks. In: Barker F (ed) Trondhjemites, dacites, and related rocks. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 13–121Google Scholar
  18. Ewart A, Hildreth W, Carmichael ISE (1975) Quaternary acid magma in New Zealand. Contrib Mineral Petrol 51:1–27Google Scholar
  19. Fairbrothers GE, Carr MJ, Mayfield DG (1978) Temporal magmatic variation at Boqueron Volcano, El Salvador. Contrib Mineral Petrol 67:1–9Google Scholar
  20. Ferrara G, Fytikas M, Giuliami O, Marinelli G (1980) Age of formation of the Aegean active volcanic arc. In: Doumas C (ed) Thera and the Aegean World 2, Athens, pp 37–41Google Scholar
  21. Fouqué F (1879) Santorin et ses éruptions. Masson et cie, Paris, pp 1–440Google Scholar
  22. Friedman I, Smith RL (1958) The deuterium content of water in some volcanic glasses. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 15:218–228Google Scholar
  23. Fytikas M, Guiliani O, Innocenti F, Marinelli G, Mazzuoli R (1976) Geochronological data on recent magmatism of the Aegean Sea. Tectonophysics 31:29–34Google Scholar
  24. Gasparik T, Lindsley DH (1980) Phase equilibria at high pressure of pyroxenes containing monovalent and trivalent ions. In: Reviews in mineralogy, 7, Pyroxenes, Mineral Soc Am, pp 309–339Google Scholar
  25. Gast PW (1968) Trace element fractionation and the origin of tholeiitic and alkaline magma types. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 32:1057–1086Google Scholar
  26. Georgalas GC (1953) L'éruption du volcan de Santorin en 1950. Bull Volcanol 13:39–55Google Scholar
  27. Georgalas GC, Papastamatiou J (1951) Über den Ausbruch des Santorin Vulkanes von 1939–1941. Der Kténas-Ausbruch. Bull Volcanol 11:3–40Google Scholar
  28. Georgalas GC, Papastamatiou J (1953) L'éruption du volcan de Santorin en 1939–1941. L'éruption du dôme Fouqué. Bull Volcanol 13:3–38Google Scholar
  29. Ghiorso M, Carmichael ISE (1980) A regular solution model for met-aluminous silicate liquids: Applications to geothermometry, immiscibility and the source region of basic magmas. Contrib Mineral Petrol 71:323–342Google Scholar
  30. Gibb FGF (1968) Flow differentiation in the xenolithic ultrabasic dykes of the Cuillins and the Strathaird Peninsula, Isle of Skye, Scotland. J Petrol 9:411–443Google Scholar
  31. Gill J (1981) Orogenic andesites and plate tectonics. Springer Verlag, Berlin, pp 200Google Scholar
  32. Green TH (1972) Crystallization of calc-alkaline andesite under controlled high-pressure conditions. Contrib Mineral Petrol 34:150–166Google Scholar
  33. Green TH, Watson EB (1982) Crystallization of apatite in natural magmas under high-pressure, hydrous conditions, with particular reference to “orogenic” rock series. Contrib Mineral Petrol 79:96–105Google Scholar
  34. Grove TL, Gerlach DC, Sando TW (1982) Origin of calc-alkaline series lavas at Medicine Lake volcano by fractionation, assimilation and mixing. Contrib Mineral Petrol 80:160–182Google Scholar
  35. Hamilton DL, Burnham CW, Osborn EF (1964) The solubility of water and effects of oxygen fugacity and water content on crystallization in mafic magmas. J Petrol 5:21–39Google Scholar
  36. Heiken G, McCoy F Jr (1984) Caldera development during the Minoan eruption, Thira, Cyclades, Greece. J Geophys Res 89:8441–8462Google Scholar
  37. Helz RT (1973) Phase relations of basalts in their melting range at 494-01 Kb as a function of oxygen fugacity. J Petrol 14:249–302Google Scholar
  38. Helz RT (1976) Phase relations of basalts in their melting ranges at 494-02 Kb. Part II. Melt compositions. J Petrol 17:139–193Google Scholar
  39. Herzberg CT (1978) Pyroxene geothermometry and geobarometry: Experimental and thermodynamic evaluation of some subsolidus phase relations involving pyroxenes in the system CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 42:945–957Google Scholar
  40. Hildreth W (1979) The Bishop Tuff: evidence for the origin of compositional zonation in silicic magma chambers. Geol Soc Am Spec Pap 180:43–75Google Scholar
  41. Hildreth W (1981) Gradients in silicic magma chambers: Implications for lithospheric magmatism. J Geophys Res 86:10153–10192Google Scholar
  42. Hildreth W (1983) The compositionally zoned eruption of 1912 in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, Katmai National Park, Alaska. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 18:1–56Google Scholar
  43. Holloway JR, Burnham CW (1972) Melting relations of basalt with equilibrium water pressure less than total pressure. J Petrol 13:1–29Google Scholar
  44. Huijsmans JPP, Barton M (1983a) Petrographic and geochemical evidence for the role of magma mixing and fractional crystallization in zoned magma chambers on Santorini, Cyclades, Greece. IAVCEI, XVIII General Assembly, Hamburg, Programs and Abstracts: 67Google Scholar
  45. Huijsmans JPP, Barton M (1983b) Constant composition of postcaldera lavas from Santorini, Cyclades, Greece. EOS Trans Am Geophys Union 64:336–337Google Scholar
  46. Katsui Y, Ando S, Inaba K (1975) Formation and magmatic evolution of Mashu Volcano, East Hokkaido, Japan. J Fac Sci Hokkaido Univ, Ser IV, 16:533–552Google Scholar
  47. Kerrick DM, Darken LS (1975) Statistical thermodynamic models for ideal oxide and silicate solid solutions, with applications to plagioclase. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 39:1431–1442Google Scholar
  48. Kilinc A, Carmichel ISE, Rivers ML, Sack RO (1983) The ferricferrous ratio of natural silicate liquids equilibrated in air. Contrib Mineral Petrol 83:136–140Google Scholar
  49. Kudo AM, Weill DF (1970) An igneous plagioclase thermometer. Contrib Mineral Petrol 25:52–65Google Scholar
  50. Le Pichon X, Angelier J, Aubouin J, Lyberis N, Monti S, Renard V, Got H, Hsü K, Mart Y, Mascle J, Matthews D, Mitropoulos D, Tsoflios P, Chronis G (1979) From subduction to transform motion: a seabeam survey of the Hellenic trench system. Earth Planet Sci Lett 44:441–450Google Scholar
  51. Lewis WK, Gilliland ER, Bauer WC (1949) Characteristics of fluidized particles. Ind Eng Chemistry 41:1104–1117Google Scholar
  52. Liatsikas N (1942) Mineralogie und Chemismus der Laven des Ausbruches 1939–1941 des Santorin Vulkans. Prakt Acad Athens 17:95–102Google Scholar
  53. Lindsley DH (1983) Pyroxene thermometry. Am Mineral 68:477–493Google Scholar
  54. Lipman PW, Christiansen RL, O'Connor JR (1966) A compositionally zoned ashflow sheet in southern Nevada. US Geol Surv Prof Pap:524-FGoogle Scholar
  55. Luhr JF, Carmichael ISE (1980) The Colima volcanic complex, Mexico. I. Postcaldera andesites from volcan Colima. Contrib Mineral Petrol 71:323–372Google Scholar
  56. Mahood G, Hildreth W (1983) Large partition coefficients for trace elements in high-silica rhyolites. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 47:11–30Google Scholar
  57. Makris J (1978) Some geophysical considerations on the geodynamic situation in Greece. Tectonophysics 46:251–268Google Scholar
  58. Mann AC (1983) Trace element geochemistry of high alumina basalt-andesite-dacite-trhyodacite lavas of the Maqin Volcanic Series of Santorini volcano, Greece, Contrib Mineral Petrol 84:43–57Google Scholar
  59. Martin DP, Rose WI Jr (1981) Behavioral pattern of Fuego volcano, Guatemala. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 10:67–81Google Scholar
  60. Matsuhisa Y (1979) Oxygen isotopic compositions of volcanic rocks from the East Japan islands arcs and their bearing on petrogenesis. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 5:271–296Google Scholar
  61. Maxwell JA (1968) Rock and mineral analysis. In: Elving PJ, Kolthoff IM (eds) Chemical analysis 27:584Google Scholar
  62. McBirney AR, Noyes RM (1979) Crystallization and layering of the Skaergaard intrusion. J Petrol 20:487–554Google Scholar
  63. Miller CF, Mittlefehldt DW (1984) Extreme fractionation in felsic magma chambers: a product of liquid-state diffusion or fractional crystallization. Earth Planet Sci Lett 68:151–158Google Scholar
  64. Nagasawa H (1970) Rare earth concentrations in zircons and apatites and their host dacites and granites. Earth Planet Sci Lett 9:359–364Google Scholar
  65. Nagasawa H, Schnetzler C (1971) Partitioning of rare earth, alkali and alkaline earth elements between phenocrysts and acidic igneous magma. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 35:953–968Google Scholar
  66. Nicholls IA (1971a) Petrology of Santorini volcano, Cyclades, Greece. J Petrol 12:67–119Google Scholar
  67. Nicholls IA (1971b) Calcareous inclusions in lavas and agglomerates of Santorini volcano. Contrib Mineral Petrol 30:261–276Google Scholar
  68. Nicholls J, Carmichael ISE, Stormer JC (1971) Silica activity and Ptotal in igneous rocks. Contrib Mineral Petrol 33:1–20Google Scholar
  69. Ninkovich D, Hays JD (1972) Mediterranean island arcs and the origin of high potash volcanoes. Earth Planet Sci Lett 16:331–345Google Scholar
  70. O'Hara MJ, Mathews RE (1981) Geochemical evolution in an advancing, periodically replenished, periodically tapped, continuously fractionated magma chamber. J Geol 138:237–277Google Scholar
  71. Papazachos BC, Comninakis PE (1978a) Deep structure and tectonics of the eastern Mediterranean. Tectonophysics 46:285–296Google Scholar
  72. Papazachos BC, Comninakis PE (1978) Geotectonic significance of the deep seismic zones in the Aegean area. In: Doumas C (ed) Thera and the Aegean World 1, London, pp 121–129Google Scholar
  73. Peccerillo A, Taylor SR (1976) Geochemistry of Eocene calc-alkaline volcanic rocks from the Kastamonu Area, Northern Turkey. Contrib Mineral Petrol 58:63–81Google Scholar
  74. Pichler H, Kussmaul S (1972) The calc-alkaline volcanic rocks of the Santorini group (Aegean Sea, Greece). N Jahrb Mineral Abh 116:268–307Google Scholar
  75. Pichler H, Kussmaul S (1980) Comments on the geological map of the Santorini islands. In: Doumas C (ed) Thera and the Aegean World 2, London, p 413–426Google Scholar
  76. Puchelt H (1978) Evolution of the volcanic rocks of Santorini. In: Doumas C (ed) Thera and Aegean World 1, London, pp 131–146Google Scholar
  77. Reck H (1936) Santorin — Der Werdegang eines Inselvulkans und sein Ausbruch 1925–1928. Dietrich Reimer, Berlin, 3 volsGoogle Scholar
  78. Rice A (1981) Convective fractionation: A mechanism to provide cryptic zoning (macro-segragation), layering, crescumulates, banded tuffs and explosive volcanism in igneous provinces. J Geophys Res 86:405–417Google Scholar
  79. Ritchey JL (1980) Divergent magmas at Crater Lake, Oregon: products of fractional crystallization and vertical zoning in a shallow, water-undersatured chamber. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 7:373–386Google Scholar
  80. Robertson JK, Wyllie PJ (1971) Rock-water systems, with special reference to the water-deficient region. Am J Sci 271:252–277Google Scholar
  81. Roscoe R (1952) The viscosity of suspensions of rigid spheres. Br J Appl Physics 3:267–269Google Scholar
  82. Rose WI Jr, Grant NK, Hahn GA, Lange IM, Powell JL, Easter J, De Graff JM (1977) The evolution of Santa Maria Volcano, Guatamala. J Geol 85:63–87Google Scholar
  83. Rose WI Jr, Anderson AT Jr, Woodruff LG, Bonis SB (1978) The October 1974 basaltic tephra from Fuego volcano; description and history of the magma body. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 4:3–54Google Scholar
  84. Rose, WI Jr, Grant NK, Easter J (1979) Geochemistry of the Los Chocoyos Ash, Quezaltenango Valley, Guatemala. Geol Soc Am Spec Pap 180:87–99Google Scholar
  85. Seward D, Wagner GA, Pichler H (1980) Fission track ages of Santorini volcanics. In: Doumas C (ed) Thera and the Aegean World 2, London, pp 101–108Google Scholar
  86. Shaw HR (1965) Comments on viscosity, crystal settling and convection in granitic magmas. Am J Sci 263:120–152Google Scholar
  87. Shaw HR (1969) Rheology of basalt in the melting range. J Petrol 10:510–535Google Scholar
  88. Shaw DM (1970) Trace element fractionation during anatexis. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 34:237–243Google Scholar
  89. Shaw HR (1972) Viscosities of magmatic silicate liquids: An empirical method of prediction. Am J Sci 272:870–893Google Scholar
  90. Shaw HR, Peck DL, Wright TL, Okamura R (1968) The viscosity of basaltic magmas: An analysis of field measurements in Makaopuhi Lava lake, Hawaii. Am J Sci 266:225–264Google Scholar
  91. Simkin T (1967) Flow differentiation in the picritic sills of North Skye. In: Wyllie P (ed) Ultramafic and related rocks, Wiley, New York, pp 64–69Google Scholar
  92. Simkin T, Siebert L, McClelland L, Bridge D, Newhall C, Latter JH (1981) Volcanoes of the world. Hutchinson Ross, Stroudsburg, Pa, pp 233Google Scholar
  93. Smith RL (1979) Ash-flow magmatism. Geol Soc Am Spec Pap 180:5–27Google Scholar
  94. Soo SH (1967) Fluid dynamics of multiphase systems. Blaisdell Publishing Co, Waltham, MassGoogle Scholar
  95. Sparks RSJ, Sigurdsson H, Wilson L (1977) Magma mixing: a mechanism for triggering acid explosive eruptions. Nature 267:315–318Google Scholar
  96. Spulberg SD, Rutherford MJ (1983) The origin of rhyolite and plagiogranite in oceanic crust: an experimental study. J Petrol 24:1–25Google Scholar
  97. Staudigel H, Bryan WB (1981) Contrasted glass-whole rock compositions and phenocryst re-distribution, IPOD sites 417 and 418. Contrib Mineral Petrol 78:359–371Google Scholar
  98. Stern RJ (1979) On the origin of andesite in the Northern Mariana Island Arc: implications from Agriga. Contrib Mineral Petrol 68:207–219Google Scholar
  99. Storey M (1981) Trachytic pyroclastics from Agua de Pau Volcano,Sao Miguel, Azores; evolution of a magma body over 4,000 years. Contrib Mineral Petrol 78:423–432Google Scholar
  100. Taylor BE, Eichelberger JC, Westrich HR (1983) Hydrogen isotopic evidence of rhyolitic magma degassing during shallow intrusion and eruption. Nature 306:541–545Google Scholar
  101. Usselman TM, Hodge DS (1978) Thermal control of low-pressure fractionation processes. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 4:265–281Google Scholar
  102. Vitaliano CJ, Fout JS, Vitaliano DB (1978) Petrochemical study of the tephra sequence exposed in the Phira quarry, Thera. In: Doumas C (ed) Thera and the Aegean World 2, London, pp 203–215Google Scholar
  103. Walker D, Shibata T, Delong SE (1979) Abyssal tholeites from the oceanographer fracture zone. II. Phase equilibria and mixing. Contrib Mineral Petrol 70:111–125Google Scholar
  104. Walker JA Carr MJ (1983) Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua: temporal changes in the composition and mineralogy of the lavas since 1923. EOS Trans Am Geophys Union 64:336Google Scholar
  105. Washington HS (1926) Santorini eruption of 1925. Bull Geol Soc Am 37:349–384Google Scholar
  106. Wells PRA (1977) Pyroxene thermometry in simple and complex systems. Contrib Mineral Petrol 62:129–139Google Scholar
  107. White CM, McBirney AR (1979) Some quantitative aspects of orogenic volcanism in the Oregon Cascades. Geol Soc Am Mem 152:369–388Google Scholar
  108. Wilcox RE (1954) Petrology of Paricutin Volcano, Mexico. US Geol Surv Bull 965-C:281–349Google Scholar
  109. Wood BJ, Banno S (1973) Garnet-orthopyroxene and orthopyroxene-clinopyroxene relationships in simple and complex systems. Contrib Mineral Petrol 42:109–124Google Scholar
  110. Wyers GP, Barton M (1986) Petrology and evolution of transitional alkaline-subalkaline lavas from Patmos, Dodecanesos, Greece: Evidence for fractional crystallization, magma mixing and assimilation. Contrib Mineral Petrol 93:297–311Google Scholar
  111. Yokoyama I, Bonasia V (1978) Gravity anomalies on the Thera islands. In: Doumas C (ed) Thera and the Aegean World 1, London, pp 147–150Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Barton
    • 1
  • Joep P. P. Huijsmans
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Geology and MineralogyThe Ohio State University ColumbusUSA
  2. 2.Department of Petrology, Institute of Earth SciencesState University of UtrechtCD UtrechtThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations