The system tonalite-peridotite-H2O at 30 kbar, with applications to hybridization in subduction zone magmatism

Abstract

We present data on the phase relationships of mixtures between natural tonalite and peridotite compositions with excess H2O at 30 kbar, and on the composition of the piercing point where the peridotite-tonalite mixing line intersects the L(Ga,Opx) reaction boundary. These data, in conjunction with earlier analogous data along peridotite-granite and basalt-granite mixing lines, permit construction of a pseudoternary liquidus projection that is relevant to interaction of peridotite with slab-derived magmas. Knowledge of the liquidus phase and temperature for a range of compositions within this projection enables us to map primary crystallization fields for quartz, garnet, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, and olivine, and to estimate the distribution of isotherms across the projection. Using this projection, we explore the consequences of peridotite assimilation by mafic to intermediate (basalt to dacite) hydrous slab-derived melts. Progressive assimilation under isothermal conditions results in garnet precipitation as the melt composition traverses the garnet liquidus surface and then garnet+orthopyroxene crystallization once the melt reaches the L(Ga,Opx) field boundary. The melt is constrained to remain on this field boundary and further assimilation of peridotite simply results in continued precipitation of garnet+orthopyroxene until the melt is consumed. The product is a hybrid solid assemblage consisting of Ga+ Opx. It is noteworthy that this process drives the melt composition in a direction nearly perpendicular to the mixing line between peridotite and the initial melt. If assimilation occurs with increasing temperature (as might occur if a slab-derived magma rises into the hotter mantle wedge), intermediate magmas (e.g. andesites) will again precipitate garnet until they reach the L(Ga,Opx) reaction boundary at which point Ga re-dissolves and orthopyroxene precipitates as the melt composition moves up-temperature along this boundary. The product of this process is a hybrid solid assemblage with garnet subordinate to orthopyroxene. For more mafic initial compositions (e.g. basalts) originally plotting in the Cpx field, it appears possible to avoid field boundaries involving garnet and shift in composition more directly toward peridotite, if assimilation is accompanied by a sharp increase in temperature. Considering published REE evidence (arguing against garnet playing a significant role in the genesis of many subduction-related magmas) in light of our results, it appears unlikely that peridotite assimilation by intermediate magmas under conditions of constant or increasing temperature is an important process in subduction zones. However, if assimilation is accompanied by an increase in temperature, our data do permit the derivation of high-Mg basalts from less refractory precursors (e.g. high-Al basalts) by peridotite assimilation.

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Correspondence to A. Dana Johnston.

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Johnston, A.D., Wyllie, P.J. The system tonalite-peridotite-H2O at 30 kbar, with applications to hybridization in subduction zone magmatism. Contrib Mineral Petrol 102, 257–264 (1989). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00373719

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Keywords

  • Assimilation
  • Olivine
  • Subduction Zone
  • Mantle Wedge
  • Liquidus Projection