, Volume 50, Issue 2, pp 256–264 | Cite as

Resource partitioning of space and its relationship to body temperature in Anolis lizard populations

  • Jonathan Roughgarden
  • Warren Porter
  • David Heckel


An index is introduced that allows both the use and availability of space as a resource to be quantified in a manner that parallels the way that the use and availability of food resources are quantified in community ecology. This index provides the ‘resource axis’ for space resources that pertains to the thermal implications of micro-climate. The index is called the Grey Body Temperature Index (GBTI) and it is the equilibrium temperature that an inanimate reference object attains in the space being quantified. For this study the inanimate reference object is a grey lizard-shaped object weighing 5 grams. Formulae to calculate the GBTI from measurements of air temperature, wind speed and solar radiation are derived from an energy balance equation. The technique is illustrated with Anolis lizard populations from Grenada and St. Kitts. It is shown that the two lizard species in Grenada partition space as a resource with respect to GBTI and that the two species in St. Kitts do not. The determination of the availability of space along the GBTI axis is illustrated for a site in St. Maarten.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bakken GS, Gates DM (1975) Heat-transfer analysis of animals: Some implications for field ecology, physiology, and evolution. In: Perspectives of Biophysical Ecology. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp. 255–290Google Scholar
  2. Bartlett PN, Gates DM (1965) The energy budget of a lizard on a tree trunk. Ecology 48(2):315–322Google Scholar
  3. Bennett AF, Gorman GC (1979) Population density and energetics of lizards on a tropical island. Oecologia (Berl) 42:339–358Google Scholar
  4. Brunt D (1932) Notes on radiation in the atmosphere. Quart J Roy Met Soc 58:389–418Google Scholar
  5. Camphell GS (1977) An Introduction to Environmental Biophysics. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, p. 159Google Scholar
  6. Carey C (1978) Factors affecting body temperatures of toads. Oecologia (Berl) 35:197–219Google Scholar
  7. Geiger R (1965) The Climate Near the Ground. Harvard U. Press, Cambridge, Mass., p. 611Google Scholar
  8. Heatwole H, Lin TH, Villalón E, Muñiz A, Matta A (1969) Some aspects of the thermal ecology of Puerto Rican Anoline lizards. J Herpetol 3:65–77Google Scholar
  9. Hertz PE (1974) Thermal passivity of a tropical forest lizard, Anolis polylepis. J Herpetol 8:323–327Google Scholar
  10. Hilpert R (1933) Forsch Gebiete Ingenieurw. 4:215–224. In: W.H. McAdams, 1954. Heat Transmission. McGraw-Hill, New York, p. 532Google Scholar
  11. Huey RB, Slatkin M (1976) Costs and benefits of lizard thermoregulation. Q Rev Biol 51:363–384Google Scholar
  12. Huey RB, Webster TP (1976) Thermal biology of Anolis lizards in a complex fauna: the Cristatellus group on Puerto Rico. Ecology 57:985–994Google Scholar
  13. Kowalski GJ, Mitchell JW (1976) Heat transfer from spheres in the naturally turbulent, outdoor environment. J Heat Transfer 98(4):649–653Google Scholar
  14. Kreith F (1965) Principles of Heat Transfer. International Textbook Co., Scranton, Pa., p. 620Google Scholar
  15. Lee JC (1980) Comparative thermal ecology of two lizards. Oecologia (Berl) 44:171–176Google Scholar
  16. Magnuson JJ, Crowder LB, Meduick PA (1979) Temperature as an ecological resource. Amer Zool 19:331–343Google Scholar
  17. Mitchell JW (1976) Heat transfer from spheres and other animal forms. Biophys J 16:561–569Google Scholar
  18. Muth A (1977) Thermoregulatory postures and orientation to the sun: A mechanistic evaluation for the zebra-tailed lizard, Callisaurus draconoides. Copeia 1973(4):710–720Google Scholar
  19. Norris KS (1965) Color adaptation in desert reptiles and its thermal relationships. Symposium on Lizard Ecology, U. Missouri Press, 162–229Google Scholar
  20. Pearman GI, Weaver HL, Tanner CB (1972) Boundary layer heat transport coefficients under field conditions. Ag Meteor 10(1–2):83–92Google Scholar
  21. Porter WP (1967) Solar radiation through the living body walls of vertebrates with emphasis on desert reptiles. Ecol Monog 37:273–296Google Scholar
  22. Porter WP, Gates DM (1969) Thermodynamic equilibria of animals with environment. Ecol Monog 39:227–244Google Scholar
  23. Porter WP, Mitchell JW, Beckman WA, DeWitt CB (1973) Behavioral implications of mechanistic ecology. Oecologia (Berl) 13:1–54Google Scholar
  24. Porter WP, James FC (1979) Behavioral implications of mechanistic ecology. II. The African Rainbow lizard, Agama agama. Copeia 1979(4):594–619Google Scholar
  25. Robinson N (1966) Solar Radiation. Elsevier Publ. Co., New York, p. 347Google Scholar
  26. Roughgarden J (1979) Theory of Population Genetics and Evolutionary Ecology, An Introduction. Macmillan Publ. Co., New York, p. 634Google Scholar
  27. Ruibal R (1961) Thermal relations of five species of tropical lizards. Evolution 15:98–111Google Scholar
  28. Schoener T, Gorman G (1968) Some niche differences in three Lesser-Antillean lizards of the genus Anolis. Ecology 49:819–830Google Scholar
  29. Sellers WD (1965) Physical Climatology. U. Chicago Press Chicago, p. 272Google Scholar
  30. Tracy CR (1976) A model of the dynamic exchanges of water and energy between a terrestrial amphibian and its environment. Ecol Monog 46(3):293–326Google Scholar
  31. Wathen PM, Mitchell JW, Porter WP (1973) Heat transfer from animal appendage-shapes-cylinders, arcs, and cones. Trans. ASME Paper No. 73/WA/Bio 10:1–8Google Scholar
  32. Winslow C-EA, Herrington LP, Gagge AP (1937) Physiological reactions of the human body to varying environmental temperatures. Am J Physiol 120(1):1–22Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jonathan Roughgarden
    • 1
  • Warren Porter
    • 2
  • David Heckel
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesStanford UniversityStanfordUSA
  2. 2.Department of ZoologyUniversity of WisconsinMadisonUSA
  3. 3.Hopkins Marine StationPacific GroveUSA

Personalised recommendations