Skeletal Radiology

, Volume 1, Issue 2, pp 87–96 | Cite as

Nutritional and metabolic bone disease in a zoological population

A review of radiologic findings
  • Matthew T. Freedman
  • Mitchell Bush
  • Gary R. Novak
  • Richard M. HellerJr.
  • A. Everette JamesJr.


The radiologic survey technique used at the National Zoological Park has disclosed many cases of nutritional and metabolic bone disease of various types. This communication discusses calcium deficiency states seen in lion cubs associated with a meat diet, the increased need for calcium noted in egg-laying lizards, problems found in New World monkeys, antelopes (due to selenium and/or vitamin E deficiency), hypervitaminosis D, and lead poisoning noted in young primates. In all of these diagnoses, the use of routine radiographic studies has been extremely helpful, first in detecting that a bone or soft tissue abnormality is present, and then in the differential diagnosis of the etiology of this abnormality. As more is learned of the necessary nutriments for exotic species kept in captivity, it is expected that the nutritional disturbances described in this article will be seen with decreasing frequency.

Key words

Animals, zoo Bone disease, metabolic Metabolic diseases 


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Copyright information

© International Society 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • Matthew T. Freedman
    • 3
  • Mitchell Bush
    • 1
    • 3
  • Gary R. Novak
    • 2
    • 3
  • Richard M. HellerJr.
    • 2
  • A. Everette JamesJr.
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.National Zoological ParkSmithsonian InstitutionWashington, D.C.U.S.A.
  2. 2.Department of Radiology and Radiological SciencesVanderbilt University School of MedicineNashvilleU.S.A.
  3. 3.Laboratory for Radiological ResearchJohns Hopkins HospitalBaltimoreU.S.A.

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