, Volume 35, Issue 1, pp 55–89 | Cite as

Biochemical and evolutionary aspects of arthropod predation on ferns

  • Michael J. Balick
  • David G. Furth
  • Gillian Cooper-Driver


The widely held assumption that very few arthropods feed on ferns was questioned following field observations of arthropod damage on ferns in the state of Veracruz, Mexico. The extent and type of damage was recorded and it was found that in a measured locality, ferns were no less attacked than the angiospermous flora. As chemistry and arthropod host relationships have been shown to be so closely intertwined, plants collected in the field were analysed for both condensed tannins and cyanogenic glycosides, compounds known to be effective deterrents in temperate climates. Although all ferns tested contained tannins these did not appear to inhibit predation. Cyanogenic glycosides were present in only 3% of the fern species analysed, and it is, therefore, unlikely that they play a significant role as defensive compounds in the ferns examined.

A literature search revealed a large number of ferns cited as being arthropod hosts. Approximately 420 named species of arthropods have been recorded, the majority of which are from the orders Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, and Hemiptera. Both evolutionary primitive (sawflies) and advanced (moths) arthropods are reported to be present on ferns suggesting possible coevolution of arthropods and ferns both before and after the radiation of angiosperms.


Radiation Significant Role Glycoside Tannin Literature Search 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anonymous: Insect pests and their control. Agric. Gaz. N. S. W. 51, 150–154 (1940)Google Scholar
  2. Anonymous: Notes and exhibitions presented at meetings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society. Proc. Hawaiian Ent. Soc. 12, 463–492 (1945)Google Scholar
  3. Augustijn, C., Verkade, J.: De rouwvlieg-larvae als beschadigerivan jonge varens. Tijdschr. Pliekt. 41, 301–308 (1935)Google Scholar
  4. Banks, H.P.: Evolution and plants of the past. In: Fundamentals of botany series. London: Macmillan 1972Google Scholar
  5. Beer, R.: Biological studies and taxonomic notes on the genus Strongylogaster Dahlbom. (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae). Univ. Kans. Sci. Bull. 37, 223–249 (1955)Google Scholar
  6. Benson, R.: Handbooks for the identification of British insects. VI. Hymenoptera, Symphyta. Sect. a. London: Roy. Ent.Soc. 1951Google Scholar
  7. Bonnemaison, L.: Un aphide nuisible aux fou geres nouveau pour la France. Rev. Path. Veg. 24, 163–171 (1937)Google Scholar
  8. Braun, A.: New species of microlepidoptera. Can. Ent. 50, 229–251 (1918)Google Scholar
  9. Brues, C., Melander, A., Carpenter, F.: Classification of Insects. Bull. M.C.Z. 108, 1–917 (1954)Google Scholar
  10. Butler, E.: A biology of the British Hemiptera-Heteroptera, London: Witherby 1923Google Scholar
  11. Cantelo, W.: A host list of the insects of Thailand. U.S. Operations Mission to Thailand and Dept. Agric., Royal Thai Government (1965)Google Scholar
  12. Carlisle, D., Ellis, D.: Bracken and locust ecdysones: their effects on moulting in the Desert Locust. Science 159, 1472–1474 (1968)Google Scholar
  13. Comstock, J.A.: Studies in Pacific coast Lepidoptera. Bull. S. Calif. Acad. Sci. 38, 34–35 (1939)Google Scholar
  14. Cooper-Driver, G.: Chemotaxonomy and phytochemical ecology of bracken. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 73, 35–46 (1976)Google Scholar
  15. Cooper-Driver, G., Finch, S., Swain, T., Bernays, E.: Seasonal variation in secondary plant compounds in relation to the palatability of Pteridium aquilinum, Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 5, 177–183 (1977)Google Scholar
  16. Cooper-Driver, S., Swain, T.: Cyanogenic polymorphism in bracken in relation to herbivore predation. Nature 260, 604 (1976)Google Scholar
  17. Cory, E.: Control of several scales infesting orchids. J. Econ. Ent. 38, 395 (1945)Google Scholar
  18. Crawford, J.: The genus Zonothrips in N. America. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 43, 105–107 (1941)Google Scholar
  19. Cumber, R.: Factors influencing population levels of Scolypopa australis Walker (Hemiptera-Homoptera: Ricaniidae). N. Zeal. J. Sci. 9, 336–356 (1966)Google Scholar
  20. Daniels, G.: Life history of Hypochrysops theon medocus (Fruhstorfer) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). J. Austral. Ent. Soc. 15, 197–200 (1976)Google Scholar
  21. Dekle, G.: Arthropods of Florida and neighboring land areas. Fla. Dept. Agric. 3, Contrib. 60 (1965)Google Scholar
  22. DeLeon, D.: A new fern mite from Trinidad, West Indies (Acarina: Tarsonemidae). Fla. Ent. 49, 127–129 (1966)Google Scholar
  23. DeLong, D.: The Leafhoppers, or Cicadellidae, of Illinois (Eurymelinae-Balcuthinae), Bull. Ill. Natur. Hist. Surv. 24, 97–376 (1948)Google Scholar
  24. DeLong, D., Severin, H.: Characters, distribution, and food plants of leafhopper species in Thannotettix group. Hilgardia 18, 185–199 (1948)Google Scholar
  25. Dethier, V.: Life histories of Cuban Lepidoptera. Psyche 47, 14–26 (1940)Google Scholar
  26. Docters Van Leeuwen, W.: Zoocecidia. In: Manual of pteridology (F. Verdoorn, ed.), pp. 192–195. The Hague: Nijhoff 1938Google Scholar
  27. Dodge, B., Rickett, H.: Diseases and pests of ornamental plants, 638 pp. New York: Ronald 1948Google Scholar
  28. Eastop, V.: Deductions from the present day host plants of aphids and related insects, In. Insect plant relationships, No. 6 (H. Van Emden, ded.), pp. 157–178. London: Symposia of the Royal Entomological Soeciety 1973Google Scholar
  29. Ehrlich, P., Raven, P.: Butterflies and plants: a study in coevolution. Evol. 18, 586–608 (1964)Google Scholar
  30. Essig, E.: Injurious and beneficial insects of California. Suppl. Mon. Bull., Calif. St. Comm. Hort. 1, 1–541 (1915)Google Scholar
  31. Essig, E.: Insects and mites of western North America, 1050 pp. New York: Macmillan 1958Google Scholar
  32. Evans, I.A.: Relationship between bracken and cancer. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 73, 105–112 (1976)Google Scholar
  33. Evans, J.: Orchard and garden. Mites and their control. Scale insects. Tasm. J. Agric. 13, 156–159 (1942)Google Scholar
  34. Evans, W.C.: Bracken thiaminase-mediated neurotoxic syndromes. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 73, 113–132 (1976)Google Scholar
  35. Eyjolfsson R.: Recent advances in the chemistry of cyanogenic glycosides. Prog. Chem. Org. Natural Prods. 128, 74 (1970)Google Scholar
  36. Eyles, A., Ashlock, P.: The genus Nysius in New Zealand (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae). N. Zeal. J. Sci. 12, 713–727 (1969)Google Scholar
  37. Feeny, P.: Seasonal changes in oak leaf tannins and nutrients as a cause of spring feeding by winter moth caterpillars. Ecology 51, 565–581 (1970)Google Scholar
  38. Felt, E.: Plant galls and gall makers., 364 pp. Ithaca: Comstock 1940Google Scholar
  39. Ferguson, D.: Host records for Lepidoptera reared in eastern North America. U.S.D.A. Tech. Bull. No. 1521, 49 pp. (1975)Google Scholar
  40. Forbes, W.: Lepidoptera of New York and neighboring states. Mem. Cornell Univ. Agric. Expt. Sta. No. 68; Primitive forms, Microlepidoptera, Pyraloids, Bombyces, 729 pp. (1923). No. 274; Geometridae, Sphingidae, Notodontidae, Lymantriidae, 263 pp. (1948). No. 329; Noctuidae, 433 pp. (1954)Google Scholar
  41. Ford, L.: A guide to the smaller British Lepidoptera, 230 pp. London: The South London Entomological Natural History Society 1949Google Scholar
  42. French, C.: Victorian insects, New record of plants attacked by insects. Vict. Nat. 49, 234 (1933)Google Scholar
  43. Gagne, W., Howarth, F.: The cavernicolous fauna of Hawaiian lava tubes: 7. Emesinae or thread-legged bugs (Heteroptera: Reduviidae). Pac. Ins. 16, 415–426 (1975)Google Scholar
  44. Ghesquière, J.: Newstedia collarti n. sp. Coccidae (Ortheriinae) radicicole et mycophile de la forêt de Soignes. Bull. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 74, 27–32 (1934)Google Scholar
  45. Ghosh, A.: Fern infesting aphids (Insecta: Homoptera) in Indian. J. Hort. 31, 104–109 (1974)Google Scholar
  46. Gilbert, L., Raven P. (eds.). Coevolution of animals and plants. Austin-London: Univ. Texas Press 1975Google Scholar
  47. Hardy, D.: Diptera: Brachycera II—Cyclorrhapha I. In: Insects of Hawaii, Vol. 11, 458 pp. Honolulu: Hawaii Press 1964Google Scholar
  48. Harper, N., Cooper-Driver, G., Swain, T.: A survey for cyanogenesis in ferns and gymnosperms. Phytochemistry 15, 1764–1767 (1976)Google Scholar
  49. Hendrix, S.: The resistance of Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn to insect attack by Trichoplusia ni (Hub.). Oecologia (Berl.) 26, 347–361 (1977)Google Scholar
  50. Hering, E.: Biology of the leaf miners, 420 pp. Gravenhage: Uitgeverij Junk 1951Google Scholar
  51. Herout, V.: Some relations between plants, insects and their isoprenoids. In: Progress in phytochemistry (L. Reinhold, Y. Liwschitz, eds.), pp. 143–202. London: Interscience 1970Google Scholar
  52. Herrick, G.: Two new species of Thrips (Thysanoptera). Ent. News 38, 276–281 (1927)Google Scholar
  53. Heugens, A.: Lepidocyrtus pallidus Reuter in de varenteelt. Meded. Rijksfac. LandbWetensch. Gent. 32, 243–251 (1967)Google Scholar
  54. Hogh, G.: Local distribution of a fern sawfly Strongylogaster multicinctus (Tenthredinidae). Kans. Ent. Soc. J. 39, 347–354 (1966)Google Scholar
  55. Holman, J.: Aulacorthum dryopteridis n. sp. and Aphis torquens n. sp., two new aphid species from Czechoslovakia (Homoptera: Aphididae). Acta Soc. Ent. Czech. 56, 221–236 (1958)Google Scholar
  56. Hoshizaki, B.: Fern growers manual, 256 pp. New York: Knopf 1975Google Scholar
  57. Hoy, J.: A catalogue of the Eriococcidae (Homoptera: Coccoidea) of the world. N. Zeal. Dept. Sci. Ind. Res. Bull. No. 150 (1963)Google Scholar
  58. Janzen, D.H.: Interactions of seeds and their insect predators/parasitoids, in a tropical deciduous forst. In: Evolutionary strategies of parasitic insects and mites (P.W. Price, ed.), pp. 154–180. New York: Plenum 1975Google Scholar
  59. Jeppson, L., Kiefer, H., Baker, E.: Mites injurious to economic plants, 614 pp. Los Angeles: Univ. Calif. Press 1975Google Scholar
  60. Jones, D.A.: Co-evolution and cyanogenesis. In: Taxonomy and ecology (V.H. Heywood ed.), pp. 213–242. London: Academic Press 1973Google Scholar
  61. Jurzitza, G.: Antiagrion gayi (Selys, 1876) and A. grinsbergsi n. sp., two closely related species from Chile (Zygoptera: Coenagrionidae). Odonatologica (UTR) 3, 221–230 (1974)Google Scholar
  62. Kevan, P., Chaloner, W., Saville, D.: Interrelationships of early terrestrial arthropods and plants. Palaeontology 18, 391–417 (1975)Google Scholar
  63. Kiefer, H.: Eriophyid studies, VIII. Bull. Calif. Dept. Agric. 29, 21–46 (1940)Google Scholar
  64. Kimball, C.: Lepidoptera of Florida. Arthropods of Florida and neighboring land areas. Fla. Dept. Agric. 3 (1965)Google Scholar
  65. Kirk, A.: J. Austr. Ent. Soc. 16, 403–409 (1977)Google Scholar
  66. Knight, H.: The plant bugs, or Miridae, of Illinois, Bull. Ill. Natur. Hist. Surv. 22, 1–234 (1941)Google Scholar
  67. Knopf, K., Habeck, D.: Life history and biology of Samea multiplicalis (Lepidoptera). Environ. Ent. 5, 539–542 (1976)Google Scholar
  68. Kormilev, N.: Los insectos de las Islas Juan Fernandez. Lygaeidae. Rev. Chil. Ent. 2, 7–14 (1952)Google Scholar
  69. Kuschel, G.: Insects of Campbell Island. Curculionidae. Pac. Ins. Monogr. 7, 416–493 (1964)Google Scholar
  70. Lawton, J.: The structure of the arthropod community on bracken. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 73, 187–216 (1976)Google Scholar
  71. Leech, H.: The bug Corythuca padi on bracken fern (Hemiptera: Tingidae). Proc. Ent. Soc. Brit. Columbia 41, 36 (1944)Google Scholar
  72. Leestmans, S.: Discovery of a new station of Rhyparioides metalkana Lederer and new data on its biotype in Romania (Arctiidae). Linn. Belg. 6, 102–104 (1975).Google Scholar
  73. Lewis, T.: Thrips, their biology, ecology and economic importance, 349 pp. London: Academic Press 1973Google Scholar
  74. Linnavuori, R.: Hemiptera of the Sudan, with remarks on some species of the adjacent countries. 4. Miridae and Isometopidae. Ann. Zool. Fenn. 12, 1–118 (1975)Google Scholar
  75. Linssen, E.: Beetles of the British Isles, Ser. 2, 295 pp. London: Warne 1959Google Scholar
  76. Lunsden, W.: Natural history of Canna and Sanday, Inner Hebrides. Proc. Roy. Physical Soc. 23, 33 (1939)Google Scholar
  77. Mackay, M.: Lepidoptera in Cretaceous Amber. Science 167, 373–380 (1970)Google Scholar
  78. Maskell, W.: An account of the insects noxious to agriculture and plants in New Zealand, 116 pp. Wellington: Didsbury 1887Google Scholar
  79. Maxwell-Lefroy, H., Howlett, F.: Indian insect life, 786 pp. New Dehli: Today & Tomorrow 1971Google Scholar
  80. May, B.: A new species of Megacolabus and descriptions of the immature stages of M. decipiens (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). J. Roy. Soc. N. Zeal. 3. 255–262 (1973)Google Scholar
  81. McKensie, H.: The armored scale insects of California. Bull. Calif. Ins. Surv. 5 (1956)Google Scholar
  82. McKensie, H.: Mealybugs of California, 525 pp. Los Angeles: Univ. Calif. Press 1967Google Scholar
  83. Meade, F., Habeck, D.: Ent. Cir. no. 78. Fla. Dept. Agric., Div. Pl. Ind. (1968)Google Scholar
  84. Moritsu, M.: The fern aphids in Japan. Yamaguti Univ. Facul. Agric. B. 3. 25–28 (1952)Google Scholar
  85. Mound, L.: A new genus and four new species of white flies from ferns. Rev. Zool. Bot. Afric. 64, 127–132 (1961)Google Scholar
  86. Needham, J.: Moth larvae living on fern spores. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 49, 165–166 (1947)Google Scholar
  87. Newstead, R.: Monograph of the Coccidae of the British Isles, Vol. 1. London: The Ray Society 1901Google Scholar
  88. Newstead, R.: Monograph of the Coccidae of the British Isles, Vol. 2. London: The Ray Society 1903Google Scholar
  89. Okaijima, S.: Notes on the Thysanoptera from the Ryukyu Islands. I. Descriptions of two new species. Kontyu 43, 13–19 (1975)Google Scholar
  90. Patch, E.: Food-plant catalogue of the aphids of the world, including the Phylloxeridae. Maine Agric. Expt. Sta. Bull. 393, 35–431 (1938)Google Scholar
  91. Perring, F.H., Gardiner, B.G. (eds.): The biology of bracken. Bot J. Linn. Soc. 73, 1–284 (1976)Google Scholar
  92. Priesner, H.: Materialien zu einer Revision der Taeniothrips-Arten (Thysanoptera) des Indo-Malayischen Faunengebietes. Treubia 16, 469–526 (1938)Google Scholar
  93. Pritchard, A.: The fern mite. Calif. Agric. 5, 10 (1951)Google Scholar
  94. Rhoades, D.F., Cates, R.G.: A general theory of plant antiherbivore chemistry. In: Recent advances in phytochemistry, Vol. 10. Biochemical interaction between plants and insects (J. W. Wallace, R.L. Hansell, eds.), pp. 168–213. New York-London: Plenum Press 1976Google Scholar
  95. Richards, W.: Three new species of Aulacorthum from British Columbia, with a key to the canadian species (Aphididae: Homoptera). Can. Ent. 104, 1017–1023 (1972)Google Scholar
  96. Richerson, P., Grigarick, A.: The life history of Stenopelmus rufinasus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. 60, 351–354 (1967)Google Scholar
  97. Robbins, W., Kaplanis, J., Thompson, N., Shortino, T., Cohen, C., Joyner, S.: Ecdysones and analogs: effects on development and reproduction of insects. Science 161, 1158–1160 (1968)Google Scholar
  98. Robinson, A.: Review of the fern aphids of North America with a description of a new species and a new genus. Can. Ent. 98, 1252–1259 (1966)Google Scholar
  99. Ross, H.: Records of additional European sawflies in America and descriptions of new varieties in North American species. Can. Ent. 64, 247–251 (1932)Google Scholar
  100. Schedl, K.: The scolytids and platypodids of Africa, III. Rev. Ent. Mocamb. 5, 595–1352 (1962)Google Scholar
  101. Schedl, W.: Erster Nachweis der Farnblattwespe Blasticotoma filiceti Klug, 1934, in Österreich (Hymenoptera: Blasticotomidae). Arbeitsgem Österr. Ent. 25, 114–117 (1973)Google Scholar
  102. Schneider, J.: Ennemis de fougeres ornamentales. Phytoma 18, (182), 26–32 (1966)Google Scholar
  103. Severin, H., Tompkins, C.: Symptoms induced by some species of aphids feeding on ferns. Hilgardia 20, 81–92 (1950)Google Scholar
  104. Simmonds, S.: chirosia crassiseta Stein (Muscidae) on bracken in Lanchashire. Ent. Mon. Mag. 100, (1198/1199), 80 (1964)Google Scholar
  105. Simmonds, S.: Possibilities of bio-control in bracken Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn (Polypodiaceae). P.A.N.S. Sect. C. Weed. Contr. 13, 200–203 (1967)Google Scholar
  106. Smart, J., Hughes, N.: The insect and the plant: progressive palaeoecological integration. In: Insect plant relationships, No. 6 (H. Van Emden, ed.), pp. 143–155. London: Royal Entomological Society 1973Google Scholar
  107. Soo Hoo, C., Fraenkel, G.: The resistance of ferns to the feeding of Prodenia eridania larvae. Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. 57, 788–790 (1964)Google Scholar
  108. Sorin, J.: Notes on the aphid Shinjia pteridifoliae Shinju (Aphididae: Homoptera). Kontyu 30, 21–26 (1962)Google Scholar
  109. Southwood, T.: The insect plant relationship: An evolutionary perspective. In: Insect plant relationships, No. 6 (H. Van Emden, ed.), pp. 3–30. London: Royal Entomological Society 1973Google Scholar
  110. Speyer, E., Read, W., Orchard, O.: Animal pests. Rep. Exp. Res. Sta. Cheshunt. 23, 59–65 (1938)Google Scholar
  111. Stansfield, F.: Another fern pest. Brit. Fern Gaz. 6, 237–238 (1933)Google Scholar
  112. Steffan, A.: Ein Freilandfund und neue Wirtspflanzen von Idiopterus nephrolepidis Dav. in Jugoslawien (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Zeits. Agnew. Ent. 50, 403–407 (1962)Google Scholar
  113. Steinweden, J.: The identity of certain common American species of Pulvinaria (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae). Microent. 11, 1–28 (1946)Google Scholar
  114. Strobl, G.: Steirische Hemipteren. Mitt. Naturw. Ver. Steiermark. 36, 170–224 (1900)Google Scholar
  115. Swain, T.: Secondary compounds as protective agents. Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. 28, 479–501 (1977)Google Scholar
  116. Swain, T.: Plant animal co-evolution: A synoptic view of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic. Proc. of the Phyto. Chemical Symp. April 1977, Reading (in press, 1978)Google Scholar
  117. Swain, T., Cooper-Driver, G.: Biochemical systematics in the Filicopsida. In: Phylogeny and classification of the ferns (A. Jermy, J. Crabbe, B. Thomas, eds.), pp. 111–134. London: Academic Press 1973Google Scholar
  118. Swain, T., Hillis, W.E.: Changes in tannins in plum leaves. J. Ecol. Food Agr. 10, 63 (1959)Google Scholar
  119. Swezey, O.: Insects attacking ferns in the Hawaiian Islands. Proc. Haw. Ent. Soc. 5, 57–64 (1922)Google Scholar
  120. Tavares, J.: Cicidias de Zumárroga (Guipúzcoz, Espanha). Broteria, Ser. Zool. (Lisbon) 26, 113–119 (1930)Google Scholar
  121. Thomas, K.J.: Biological control of Salvinia by the snail Pila globosa Swainson. Bot J. Linn. Soc. 7, 243–247 (1975)Google Scholar
  122. Tietz, H.: An index to the described life histories, early stages and hosts of the macrolepidoptera of the continental U.S. and Canada, Vol. 2, pp 1041. Sarasota: Allyn Museum of Entomology 1972Google Scholar
  123. Timberlake, P.: Notes on Hawaiian aphididae, with a list of food plants (Homoptera). Proc. Haw. Ent. Soc. 5, 450–460 (1924)Google Scholar
  124. Torre-Bueno, J.: A synopsis of the Hemiptera-Heteroptera of America north of Mexico. Family XI-Lygaeidae. Ent. Am. 26, 89–141 (1946)Google Scholar
  125. Trehan, K.: Two new species of Aleurodidae found on ferns in greenhouses in Britain (Hemiptera). Proc. Roy. Ent. Soc., Lond., B, 7, 186 (1937)Google Scholar
  126. Usinger, R., Ashlock, P.: Revision of the Metrargini (Hemiptera, Lygaeidae). Proc. Haw. Ent. Soc. 17, 93–116 (1959)Google Scholar
  127. Van Duzee, E.: A second report on Hemiptera-Heteroptera from the Marquesas. Bull. Bernice P. Bishop Museum. No. 114, pp. 313–326 (1935)Google Scholar
  128. Van Emden, H.F.: Aphids as phytochemists. In: Phytochemical ecology (J.B. Harborne, ed.), pp. 25–43. New York: Academic Press 1972Google Scholar
  129. Vanin, S.: Taxonomic revision of the South American Belidae (Coleoptera). Arq. Zool. 28, 1–75 (1976)Google Scholar
  130. Vorghese, K., Nair, M.: Note on a new pest of Salvinia sp. (African payal) in Kerala. Agric. Res. J. Kerala 10, 181 (1972)Google Scholar
  131. Wagner, E., Slater, J.: Conerning some Holartic Miridae (Hemiptera, Heteroptera). Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 54, 273–281 (1952)Google Scholar
  132. Werner, W.: Observations on the life history and control of the fern scale, Hemichionaspis aspidistrae Sing. Pap. Mich. Acad. Sci. 13, 517–541 (1931)Google Scholar
  133. Whittaker, R., Feeny, P.: Allelochemics: Chemical interactions between species. Science 171, 757–770 (1971)Google Scholar
  134. Wieczorek, H.: Zur Kenntnis der Adlerfarninsekten. Ein Beitrag zum Problem der biologischen Bekämpfung von Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn in Mitteleuropa. Zeits. Angew. Ent. 72, 337–358 (1973)Google Scholar
  135. Williams, C.: Hormonal interaction between plants and insects. In: Chemical ecology (E. Sondheimer, J. Simeone, eds.), pp. 103–132. New York: Academic Press 1970Google Scholar
  136. Wood, R.K.S.: Physiological plant pathology. Oxford: Blackwell 1967Google Scholar
  137. Woodward, T., Evans, J., Eastop, V.: Hemiptera. In: Insects of Australia, pp. 387–457 (CSIRO). Carlton: Melbourne Univ. Press 1970Google Scholar
  138. Zimmerman, E.: Apterygota-Thysanoptera, vol. 2, 475 pp.; Homoptera: Auchenorhyncha, Vol. 4, 268 pp.; Macrolepidoptera, Vol. 7, 542 pp.; Insects of Hawaii (1948)Google Scholar
  139. Zimmerman, E.: Miocalles and Microcryptorhynchus (Curculionidae: Cryptorhynchinae). Coleop. Bull. 11, 79–94 (1957)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael J. Balick
    • 1
  • David G. Furth
    • 2
  • Gillian Cooper-Driver
    • 3
  1. 1.Botanical Museum of Harvard UniversityCambridgeUSA
  2. 2.Department of BiologyYale UniversityNew HavenUSA
  3. 3.Department of Biological SciencesBoston UniversityBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations