The body length and body weight of all adult common toads (Bufo bufo) breeding at a pond in south Dorset were measured between 1983 and 1993. Each toad was placed into one of four categories depending on its sex and whether it was either a first time breeder or an animal that had previously bred. The body condition of each male and female toad for each year was compared with the average body condition of all the male and female toads captured over the 11 years of the study so that between-year differences in condition could be detected. Changes in body condition were compared with changes in body condition were compared with changes in toad density, rainfall and climatic temperature during the previous summer (March–September), during hibernation (October–February) and during the month preceding the start of spawning. During the study there was a decline in the body condition of all toad categories and these changes were significantly correlated with changes in toad density and climatic temperature. Toads were also more likely to enter hibernation in poor condition following a hot dry summer than after either cool wet or hot wet summers. Body condition explained 41% of the size-specific variation in fecundity.
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Reading, C.J., Clarke, R.T. The effects of density, rainfall and environmental temperature on body condition and fecundity in the common toad, Bufo bufo . Oecologia 102, 453–459 (1995). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00341357