In this paper an econometric model is used to describe consumer demand for ivory and rhino horn in Japan, using the Hendry research methodology. The demand for ivory in Japan, a final consumer, was found to be primarily income-led, with an elasticity of 0.75. International trade restrictions have had a profound effect on the ivory market since 1985. The data for rhino horn demand are less good, consisting of a time series for Japan before 1980, when international trade in rhino horn became illegal. However, analysis suggests that demand for rhino horn was also primarily income-led, with unit elasticity.
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Milner-Gulland, E.J. An econometric analysis of consumer demand for ivory and rhino horn. Environmental and Resource Economics 3, 73–95 (1993). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00338321
- rhino horn
- econometric analysis