Biological Cybernetics

, Volume 25, Issue 2, pp 103–119 | Cite as

A myocybernetic control model of skeletal muscle

  • H. Hatze


A mathematical model of skeletal muscle is presented which contains the two physiological control parameters stimulation rate and motor unit recruitment. The model is complete in the sense that it adequately describes all possible contractive states normally occurring in living muscle. The modelling procedure relies entirely on established myo-physiological facts and each assumption made is substantiated by experimental data. Extensive simulation studies reveal that the model is capable of correctly predicting practically all known phenomena of the muscular force-output. A simplified version of the model is also presented, particularly suitable for inclusion as the driving structure in complex musculoskeletal link systems. This version was successfully tested in the prediction of an optimal human motion. The present control model is believed to fill a gap in the literature on models of muscle, and may be expected to provide a sound basis for research into the optimal control aspects of muscular contraction, and to stimulate such research.


Skeletal Muscle Simulation Study Control Parameter Muscular Contraction Motor Unit 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Hatze
    • 1
  1. 1.National Research Institute for Mathematical SciencesCSIRPretoriaSouth Africa

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