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Supply and demand factors of Cleaner technologies: Some empirical evidence


This article identifies and analyzes factors that affect the willingness of firms and consumers to develop and adopt cleaner technologies. “Cleaner technologies” is used as a general term for pollution abatement technologies, re-use systems, and environmentally sound consumer products and materials. The article also contains the findings of three case studies on cleaner technologies (CFC substitutes, low-solvent paints and coatings, and membrane technology), in which the importance of the identified factors is investigated. From the case studies some general conclusions are drawn about these factors, and the way in which policy instruments can be used to stimulate innovation in and diffusion of cleaner technologies. No single policy instrument is considered to be optimal. Instead a policy mix is needed, involving a much wider use of economic instruments.

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Additional information

This paper is based on a research project for the Ministries of Economic Affairs and the Environment in the Netherlands, and is a revision of an earlier paper “Policy Instruments to Stimulate Cleaner Technologies,” which was prepared for the EAERE conference in Stockholm, June 11–14th, 1991. The authors thank the referee for helpful comments.

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Kemp, R., Olsthoorn, X., Oosterhuis, F. et al. Supply and demand factors of Cleaner technologies: Some empirical evidence. Environmental and Resource Economics 2, 615–634 (1992).

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Key words

  • Cleaner technologies
  • environmental policy
  • economic instruments
  • efficiency
  • innovation
  • diffusion