Advertisement

Chromosoma

, Volume 53, Issue 1, pp 25–36 | Cite as

Distribution of 18+28S ribosomal genes in mammalian genomes

  • T. C. Hsu
  • Sonia E. Spirito
  • Mary Lou Pardue
Article

Abstract

In situ hybridization with 3H 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA from Xenopus laevis has been used to study the distribution of DNA sequences coding for these RNAs (the nucleolus organizing regions) in the genomes of six mammals. Several patterns of distribution have been found: 1) A single major site (rat kangaroo, Seba's fruit bat), 2) Two major sites (Indian muntjac), 3) Multiple sites in centromeric heterochromatin (field vole), 4) Multiple sites in heterochromatic short arms (Peromyscus eremicus), 5) Multiple sites in telomeric regions (Chinese hamster). — The chromosomal sites which bind 3H 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA correspond closely to the sites of secondary constrictions where these are known. However, the correlation is not absolute. Some secondary constrictions do not appear to bind 3H ribosomal RNA. Some regions which bind ribosomal RNA do not appear as secondary constrictions in metaphase chromosomes. — Although the nucleolus organizing regions of most mammalian karyotypes are found on the autosomes, the X chromosomes in Carollia perspicillata and C. castanea carry large clusters of sequences complementary to ribosomal RNA. In situ hybridization shows that the Y chromosome in C. castanea also has a large nucleolus organizing region.

Keywords

Multiple Site Xenopus Laevis Metaphase Chromosome Major Site Telomeric Region 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bianchi, N. O., Lima-de-Faria, A., Jaworska, H.: A technique for removing silver grains and gelatin from tritium autoradiographs of human chromosomes. Hereditas (Lund) 51, 207–211 (1964)Google Scholar
  2. Birnstiel, M. L., Grunstein, M.: The ribosomal cistrons of eukaryotes—a model system for the study of evolution of serially repeated genes. FEBS Symposium 23, 349–365 (1972)Google Scholar
  3. Evans, H. J., Buckland, R. A., Pardue, M. L.: Location of the genes coding for 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA in the human genome. Chromosoma (Berl.) 48, 405–426 (1974)Google Scholar
  4. Funaki, K., Matsui, S., Sasaki, M.: Location of nucleolus organizers in animal and plant chromosomes by means of an improved N-banding technique. Chromosoma (Berl.) 49, 357–370 (1975)Google Scholar
  5. Gall, J. G., Pardue, M. L.: Formation and detection of RNA-DNA hybrid molecules in cytological preparations. Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 63, 378–383 (1969)Google Scholar
  6. Gall, J. G., Pardue, M. L.: Nucleic acid hybridization in cytological preparations. In: Methods in enzymol., Nucleic Acids pt. D 21, 470–480 (1971)Google Scholar
  7. Goodpasture, C., Bloom, S. E.: Visualization of nucleolar organizer regions in mammalian chromosomes using silver staining. Chromosoma (Berl.) 53, 37–50 (1975)Google Scholar
  8. Henderson, A. S., Eicher, E. M., Yu, M. T., Atwood, K. C.: The chromosomal location of ribosomal DNA in the mouse. Chromosoma (Berl.) 49, 155–160 (1974)Google Scholar
  9. Henderson, A. S., Warburton, D., Atwood, K. C.: Location of ribosomal DNA in the human chromosome complement. Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 69, 3394–3398 (1972)Google Scholar
  10. Henderson, A. S., Warburton, D., Atwood, K. C.: Localization of rDNA in the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) chromosome complement. Chromosoma (Berl.) 46, 435–441 (1974a)Google Scholar
  11. Hsu, T. C., Baker, R. J., Utakoji, T.: The multiple sex chromosome system of American leaf-nosed bats (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae). Cytogenetics 7, 27–38 (1968)Google Scholar
  12. Hsu, T. C., Benirschke, K.: An atlas of mammalian chromosomes, Vols 1–8. New York: Springer-Verlag Inc. 1967–74Google Scholar
  13. Hsu, T. C., Brinkley, B. R., Arrighi, F. E.: The structure and behavior of the nucleolus organizers in mammalian cells. Chromosoma (Berl.) 23, 137–153 (1967)Google Scholar
  14. Hsu, T. C., Zenzes, M. T.: Mammalian chromosomes in vitro. XVII. Idiogram of the Chinese hamster. J. nat. Cancer Inst. 32, 857–869 (1964)Google Scholar
  15. Hutchinson, N. J., Pardue, M. L.: The mitotic chromosomes of Notophthalmus (-Triturus) viridescens: Localization of C-banding regions and DNA sequences complementing to 18S, 28S and 5S ribosomal RNA. Chromosoma (Berl.) 53, 51–69 (1975)Google Scholar
  16. Kato, H., Tsuchiya, K., Yosida, T. H.: Constitutive heterochromatin of Indian muntjac chromosomes revealed by DNase treatment and a C banding technique. Canad. J. Genet. Cytol. 16, 273–280 (1974)Google Scholar
  17. Matsui, S., Sasaki, M.: Differential staining of nucleolus organizers in mammalian chromosomes. Nature (Lond.) 246, 148–150 (1973)Google Scholar
  18. Pardue, M. L.: Localization of repeated DNA sequences in Xenopus chromosomes. Cold Spr. Harb. Symp. quant. Biol. 38, 475–482 (1974)Google Scholar
  19. Pardue, M. L., Gerbi, S. A., Eckhardt, R. A., Gall, J. G.: Cytological localization of DNA complementary to ribosomal RNA in polytene chromosomes of Diptera. Chromosoma (Berl.) 29, 268–290 (1970)Google Scholar
  20. Pardue, M. L., Hsu, T. C.: Locations of 18s and 28s ribosomal genes in the chromosomes of the Indian Muntjac. J. Cell Biol. 64, 251–254 (1975)Google Scholar
  21. Pathak, S., Hsu, T. C., Arrighi, F. E.: Chromosomes of Peromyscus. IV The role of heterochromatin in karyotypic evolution. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 12, 315–326 (1973)Google Scholar
  22. Patton, J. L., Gardner, A. L.: Parallel evolution of multiple sex-chromosome systems in the Phyllostomatid bats, Carollia and Choeroniscus. Experientia (Basel) 27, 105–106 (1971)Google Scholar
  23. Phillips, S. G., Phillips, D. M.: Sites of nucleolus productions in cultured Chinese hamster cells. J. Cell Biol. 40, 248–268 (1969)Google Scholar
  24. Shaw, M. W., Krooth, R. S.: The chromosomes of the Tasmanian rat-kangaroo (Potorous tridactylis apicalis). Cytogenetics 3, 19–33 (1964)Google Scholar
  25. Sinclair, J. H., Brown, D. D.: Retention of common nucleotide sequences in the ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid of eukaryotes and some of their physical characteristics. Biochemistry 10, 2761–2769 (1971)Google Scholar
  26. Stock, A. D.: Chromosome banding pattern homology and its phylogenetic implications in the bat genera Carollia and Choeroniscus. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 14, 34–41 (1975)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. C. Hsu
    • 1
  • Sonia E. Spirito
    • 2
  • Mary Lou Pardue
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BiologyThe University of Texas System Cancer Center M. D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor InstituteHoustonUSA
  2. 2.Department of BiologyMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyCambridgeUSA

Personalised recommendations