The ideal vaccine is discussed under three headings. 1. The major requirements of the vaccine. This includes primarlly safety and efficacy and a number of other desirable features if the vaccine is to control a disease of global importance. These include cost, easy administration (e.g. orally), thermal stability, multivalency and long-lived immunlty 2. The nature and persistence of the immune responses which, as judged by model systems, are probably generated by the most effective viral vaccines in current human usage. 3. Approaches for developing future ‘simplified” vaccines with similar levels of safety and efficacy so that these objectives are achieved.
Ada, G.L. 1989 Vaccines. In Fundamental Immunology, ed. Paul, W.E. pp. 985–1032. New York: Raven Press.
Ada, G.L. 1990 The immunological principles of vaccination. Lancet 335, 523–526.
Ada, G.L. & Jones, P.D. 1986 The immune response to influenza infection. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology 128, 1–54.
Askonas, B.A., McMichael, A.J. & Webster, R.G. 1982 The immune response to influenza viruses and the problem of protection against infection. In Basic and Applied Influenza Research, ed. Beare, H. pp. 159–188. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Flexner, C., Hugin, A. & Moss, B. 1987 Prevention of vaccinia virus infection in immunodeficient mice by vector-directed IL-2 expression. Nature 330, 259–262.
Jones, W.R., Bradley, J., Judd, S.J., Denholm, E.H., Ing, R.M.Y., Mueller, U.W., Powell, J., Griffin, P.D. & Stevens, V.C. 1988 Phase I clinical trial of a World Health Organization birth control vaccine. Lancet i 1295–1299.
Kris, R.M., Asofsky, R., Evans, C.B. & Small, P.A. 1985 Protection and recovery in influenza virus-infected mice immunosuppressed with anti-IgM. Journal of Immunology 132, 1230–1235.
MacLennan, I.M.C., Liu, Y.-J. Joshua, D.E. & Gray, D. 1989 The production and selection of memory B cells in follicles. In Progress in Immunology, Vol. VII, eds, Melchers, F., Albert, E.D., von Boehmer, H., Dierich, M.P., Du Pasquier, L., Eichmann, K., Gemsa, D., Götze, O., Kalden, J.R., Kaufmann, S.H.E., Kirchner, H., Resch, K., Riethmüller, G., Schimpl, A., Sorg, C., Steinmetz, M., Wagner, H. & Zachau, H.G. pp. 443–450. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Rajewsky, K. 1989 Evolutionary and somatic immunological memory. In: Progress in Immunology, Vol. VII, eds. Melchers, F., Albert, E.D., von Boehmer, H., Dierich, M.P., Du Pasquier, L., Eichmann, K., Gemsa, D., Götze, O., Kalden, J.R., Kaufmann, S.H.E., Kirchner, H., Resch, K., Riethmüller, G., Schimpl, A., Sorg, C., Steinmetz, M., Wagner, H. & Zachau, H.G. pp. 397–403. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Ramshaw, I.A., Andrew, M.E., Phillips, S.M., Boyle, D.B. & Coupar, B.E.H. 1987 Recovery of immunodeficient mice from a vaccinia virus/IL-2 recombinant infection. Nature 329, 545–546.
About this article
Cite this article
Ada, G.L. The ideal vaccine. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 7, 105–109 (1991). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00328978
- Immune Response
- Thermal Stability
- Viral Vaccine
- Desirable Feature
- Environmental Biotechnology