Advertisement

Oecologia

, Volume 85, Issue 3, pp 434–439 | Cite as

Comparative recruitment patterns of two non-pioneer canopy tree species in French Guiana

  • Pierre-Michel Forget
Original Papers

Summary

A comparative study was conducted on the recruitment patterns of two non-pioneer tree species, one dispersed by arboreal mammals and birds (Virola michelii, Myristicaceae) and the other by rodents (Moronobea coccinea, Clusiaceae). These species differ in fruiting phenology, seed size, dispersal distance, germination time and seed nutrient exhaustion. In both species, establishment patterns were consistent with the escape hypothesis and the Janzen-Connell model. Virola seeds need not be buried to survive and germinate, and may produce a seedling carpet beneath the parent. Moronobea seedlings only establish from seeds buried by scatterhoarding rodents in the surrounding understory. One-year survival of Virola seedlings was 47.8% and was greater >10 m than < 10 m from the largest parent tree. In contrast, survival of Moronobea seedlings was 56% 3 years after seed dispersal. Survival of juveniles was greater in gaps than in the understory for Virola but not for Moronobea. Moronobea survival was greater than Virola survival in both microhabitats. Both species establish in the understory, yet both grew faster in gaps. Virola appeared to be more gap-dependent than Moronobea which may persist several years in the understory until a gap occurs. Virola and Moronobea illustrate two intermediate recruitment patterns along an hypothetical continuum of nonpioneer species replacement (Bazzaz and Pickett 1980; Swaine and Whitmore 1988).

Key words

Non-pioneer species Moronobea coccinea Recruitment pattern Tropical tree Virola michelii 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Augspurger CK (1984) Seedling survival of tropical tree seedlings: a comparative study of growth and survival. J Ecol 77:777–796Google Scholar
  2. Bazzaz FA, Pickett STA (1980) Physiological ecology of tropical succession: a compative review. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 11:287–310Google Scholar
  3. Brokaw NVL (1982) The definition of treefall and its effect on measures of forest dynamics. Biotropica 14:158–160Google Scholar
  4. Brokaw NVL (1985) Treefalls, regrowth and community structure in tropical forests. In: Pickett STA, White PS (eds) The ecology of natural disturbance and patch dynamics. Academic Press Inc, pp 53–69Google Scholar
  5. Brokaw NVL (1987) Gap-phase regeneration of three pioneer tree species in a tropical forest. J Ecol 75:9–19Google Scholar
  6. Charles-Dominique P, Atramentowicz M, Charles-Dominique M, Gérard H, Hladik A, Hladik CM, Prévost MF(1981) Les mammifères frugivores arboricoles nocturnes d'une forêt guyanaise: inter-relations plantes-animaux. Rev d'Ecol (Terre et Vie) 35:341–435Google Scholar
  7. Clark DA, Clark DB (1984) Spacing dynamics of a tropical tree: evaluation of the Janzen-Connell model. Amer Nat 124:769–788Google Scholar
  8. Coley PD (1988) Herbivory and defensive characteristics of tree species in a lowland tropical forest. Ecol Monogr 53:209–233Google Scholar
  9. Coley PD (1988) Effects of plant growth rate and leaf time and the amount and type of anti-herbivore defence. Oecologia 74:531–536Google Scholar
  10. Connell JH (1971) On the role of natural ennemies in preventing competitive exclusion in some marine animals and in forest trees. In: den Boer PJ, Gradwell G (eds), Dynamics of populations. Pudoc, Wageningen, pp 298–312Google Scholar
  11. Denslow JS (1980) Gap partioning among tropical rainforest trees. Tropical succession (suppl).Biotropica 12:47–55Google Scholar
  12. Denslow JS (1987) Tropical rain forest gap and tree species diversity. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 18:413–451Google Scholar
  13. Dubost G (1988) Ecology and social life of the red acouchy, Myoprocta exilis; comparisons with the orange-rumped agouti, Dasyprocta leporina. J Zool Lond 214:107–123Google Scholar
  14. Forget P-M (1988) Dissémination et régénération naturelle de huit espèces d'arbres en forêt guyanaise. Thèse de Doctorat de l'Université Paris 6Google Scholar
  15. Forget P-M (1989) La régénération naturelle d'une espèce autochore de la forét guyanaise; Eperua falcata Aublet (Caesalpiniaceae). Biotropica 21:115–125Google Scholar
  16. Forget P-M (1990) Seed dispersal of Vouacapoua americana Aublet (Caesalpiniaceae) by caviomorph rodents in French Guiana. J. Trop Ecol 6Google Scholar
  17. Foster RB (1982) The seasonal rhythm of fruitfall on Barro Colorado Island. In: Leigh Jr EG, Rand AS, Windsor DM (eds). The ecology of a tropical forest, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, pp 151–172Google Scholar
  18. Foster SA (1986) On the adaptative value of large seeds for tropical moist forest trees: a review and synthesis. Bot Rev 52:260–299Google Scholar
  19. Foster SA, Janson CH (1985) The relationship between seed size and establishment conditions in tropical woody plants. Ecology 66:773–780Google Scholar
  20. Grubb PJ (1977) The maintenance of species richness in plant communities: the importance of the regeneration niche. Biol Rev 52:107–145Google Scholar
  21. hartshorn GS (1978) Treefalls and tropical forest dynamics. In: Tomlinson PB, Zimmermann MH(eds). Tropical Trees as Living Systems, Cambridge Univ Press, London, pp 617–638Google Scholar
  22. Hartshorn GS (1980) Neotropical forest dynamics. Tropical succession (suppl). Biotropica 23–30Google Scholar
  23. Howe HF (1983) Annual variation in a neotropical seed-dispersal system. In: Sutton SL, Whitmore TC, Chadwick AC (eds). Tropical rain forest: ecology and management, Blackwell, Oxford, pp 211–228Google Scholar
  24. HoweHF (1986) Seed dispersal by fruit-eating birds and mammals. In: MurrayDR (ed). Seed dispersal. Academic Press Australia. pp 123–189Google Scholar
  25. Howe HF, Estabrook GF (1977) On intraspecific competition, and seed dispersal of Guarea glabra in Panama. Oecologia 39:185–196Google Scholar
  26. Howe HF, Primack R (1975) Differential seed dispersal by birds of the tree Casearia nitida (Flacourtiaceae). Biotropica 7:278–283Google Scholar
  27. Howe HF, Smallwood (1982) Ecology of seed dispersal.Ann Rev Ecol Syst 13:201–28Google Scholar
  28. Howe HF, VandeKerkhove GA (1980) Nutmeg dispersal by tropical birds. Science 210:925–927Google Scholar
  29. Howe HF, VandeKerkhove GA (1981) Removal of wild nutmeg (Virola surinamensis) crops by birds. Ecology 62:1093–1106Google Scholar
  30. Howe HF, Schupp EW, Westley LC (1985) Early consequences of seed dispersal for a neotropical tree (Virola surinamensis).Ecology 66:781–791Google Scholar
  31. Hubbell SP, Foster RB, (1986) Canopy gaps and the dynamics of a neotropical forest. In: Crawley MJ (ed) Plant Ecology, Blackwell Scientific, Oxford, pp 77–96Google Scholar
  32. Janson CH (1983) Adaptation of fruit morphology to dispersal agents in a neotropical forest. Science 219:187–189Google Scholar
  33. Janzen DH (1970) Herbivores and the number of species in tropical forests. Amer Nat 104:501–528Google Scholar
  34. Julien-Laferriere D (1989) Utilisation de l'espace et des ressources alimentaires chez Caluromys philander (Marsupialia, Didelphidae); comparaison avec Potos flavus (Eutheria, Procyonidae). Thèse de l'Université Paris XIII, VilletaneuseGoogle Scholar
  35. Le projet Ecerex (1983) Analyse de l'écosystème forestier tropical humide et des modifications apportées par l'homme. Journées de Cayenne, 4–8 mars 1983, GERDAT (CTFT), INRA, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, ORSTOMGoogle Scholar
  36. Lescure JP (1981) La végétation et la flore dans la région de la piste de Saint-Elie. Bulletin d'Ecerex (Orstom, Cayenne) 3:4–23Google Scholar
  37. Lieberman M, Lieberman D, Peralta R (1989) Forests are not just Swiss cheese: canopy stereogeometry of non-gaps in tropical forests. Ecology 70:550–552Google Scholar
  38. Morris D (1962) The behaviour of the green acouchi (Myoprocta pratii) with special reference to scatter hoarding. Proc Zool Soc Lond 139:701–733Google Scholar
  39. Oberbauer SF, Donnelly MA (1986) Growth analysis and successional status of Costa Rican rain forest trees. New Phytol 104:517–521Google Scholar
  40. Prévost MF (1983) Les fruits et les graines des espèces végétaies pionnières de Guyane française. Rev d'Ecol (Terre et Vie) 38:121–145Google Scholar
  41. Price MV, Jenkins SH (1986) Rodents as seed consumers and dispersers. In: Murray DR (ed), Seed dispersal. Academic Press Australia. pp 191–235Google Scholar
  42. Roosmalen Van MGM (1985) Habitat preferences, diet, feeding strategy and social organization of the black spider monkey (Ateles paniscus Linnaeus 1758) inSurinam. Acta Amazonica (supplement) 15:1–238Google Scholar
  43. Sabatier D (1983) Fructification et dissémination en forêt guyanaise. Thèse de 3ême cycle, Université des Sciences et Techniques du Languedoc, MontpellierGoogle Scholar
  44. Sabatier D (1985) Saisonnalité et déterminisme du pic de fructification en forêt guyanaise. Rev Ecol (Terre et Vie) 40:289–320Google Scholar
  45. Schulz JP (1960) Ecological studies on rain forest in Northern Surinam. Verhand Kon Ned Akad Wetensch Afd Natuurk ser 2, 53, 267 pp, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  46. Schupp EW (1990) Annual variation in seedfall, postdispersal predation, recruitment of a neotropical tree. Ecology 71:504–515Google Scholar
  47. Schupp EW, Howe HF, Augspurger CK, Levey DJ (1989) Arrival and survival in tropical treefalls gaps. Ecology 70:562–564Google Scholar
  48. Sork VL (1987) Effects of predation on light and seedling establishment in Gustavia superba. Ecology 63:1341–1350Google Scholar
  49. Swaine MD, Whitmore TC (1988) On the definition of ecological species groups in tropical rain forests. Vegetatio 75:81–86Google Scholar
  50. Wheelwright NT, Orians GH (1982) Seed dispersal by animals: contrasts with pollen dispersal, problem of terminology, and contraints on coevolution. Amer Nat 119:402–413Google Scholar
  51. Whitmore TC (1978) Gaps in the forest canopy. In: Tomlinson PB, Zimmermann MH (eds)Tropical Trees as Living Systems, Cambridge Univ Press, pp 639–655Google Scholar
  52. Whitmore TC (1984) Tropical rain forests of the far east. 2nd edition, Clarendon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pierre-Michel Forget
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratoire d'Ecologie GénéraleMuséum National d'Histoire NaturelleBrunoyFrance

Personalised recommendations