, Volume 86, Issue 1, pp 51–56 | Cite as

Effect of exposure to fluoride, nitrogen compounds and SO2 on the numbers of spruce shoot aphids on Norway spruce seedlings

  • J. K. Holopainen
  • E. Kainulainen
  • J. Oksanen
  • A. Wulff
  • L. Kärenlampi
Original Papers


Development of spruce shoot aphid (Cinara pilicornis Hartig) populations was monitored in natural and artificial infestations of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) seedlings, exposed to air pollutants in an experimental field. The pollutants, applied both singly and in mixtures, were gaseous sulphur dioxide, NaF (30 mg l-1 F) and Ca(NO3)2 or (NH4)2SO4 in aqueous solutions (200 mg l-1 N). Aphid numbers on 10 seedlings in each treatment and two control plots were counted at 2-week intervals. At the beginning of the experiment aphid numbers did not differ between treatments. Aphid populations peaked in late June and early July. All the pollutants and their combinations significantly increased the numbers of aphids per seedling. Four apterous females were transferred to spruce seedlings which were growing in containers in the same plots. After 4–5 weeks aphid numbers were significantly higher in the fluoride treatment and in the combined treatment of fluoride, nitrogen and SO2. The pollution treatments did not have a significant effect on shoot growth. Concentrations of F and S in needles were higher in treatments involving these pollutants. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of free amino acids in shoot stems between control and fluoride treatment. However, the relatively low concentration of arginine in the F treatment at the end of the growing season might indicate disturbances in the nitrogen metabolism of spruce seedlings.

Key words

Picea abies Cinara pilicornis Air pollution Amino acid Plant-insect interactions 


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Copyright information

© Springer_Verlag 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. K. Holopainen
    • 1
  • E. Kainulainen
    • 1
  • J. Oksanen
    • 1
  • A. Wulff
    • 1
  • L. Kärenlampi
    • 1
  1. 1.Ecological Laboratory, Department of Environmental SciencesUniversity of KuopioKuopioFinland

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