Cell and Tissue Research

, Volume 278, Issue 1, pp 135–144 | Cite as

Neural organization of the lamina neuropil of the larva of the tiger beetle (Cicindela chinensis)

  • Yoshihiro Toh
  • Akiko Mizutani


Six neural elements, viz., retinular axons, a giant monopolar axon, straight descending processes (type I), lamina monopolar axons (type II), processes containing clusters of dense-core vesicles (type III), and processes coursing in various directions with varicosities (type IV), have been identified at the ultrastructural level in the lamina neuropil of the larval tiger beetle Cicindela chinensis. Retinular axons make presynaptic contact with all other types of processes. Type I and II processes possess many pre-and postsynaptic loci. Type II processes presumably constitute retinotopic afferent pathways. It remains uncertain whether type I processes are lamina monopolar axons or long retinular axons extending to the medullar neuropil. Type III processes may be efferent neurons or branches of afferent neurons contributing to local circuits. A giant monopolar axon extends many branches throughout the lamina neuropil; these branches are postsynaptic to retinular axons, and may be nonretinotopic and afferent. Type IV processes course obliquely in the neuropil, being postsynaptic to retinular axons, and presynaptic to type I processes.

Key words

Synapses Neuropil Visual system Retinotopic pathways Cicindela chinensis (Insecta) 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yoshihiro Toh
    • 1
  • Akiko Mizutani
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biology, Faculty of ScienceKyushu UniversityFukuokaJapan

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