Advertisement

Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology

, Volume 21, Issue 3, pp 163–172 | Cite as

Reproductive success in male savanna baboons

  • Fred B. Bercovitch
Article

Summary

Different techniques have been utilized to ascertain male savanna baboon reproductive success based upon behavioral data. A 19 month field study of the reproductive behavior of savanna baboons in Kenya revealed a high degree of concordance among five different measures of male baboon reproductive success. The number of ejaculations showed the highest correlation with time spent in consort. Male reproductive success was not correlated with the number of females mated with because most males mated with most females. Female baboons regularly undergo multiple cycles prior to conception and the penultimate cycle showed no behavioral or physiological differences from the conception cycle. In nearly one-third of conception cycles a single consort partner was responsible for almost two-thirds of ejaculations during the four day optimal conception period. One may be able to reasonably infer paternity in these cases, but the available data are insufficient to support the idea that the variance in male baboon reproductive success is greater than the variance in female baboon reproductive success. The variance in male savanna baboon reproductive success will remain uncertain until genetic paternity studies are undertaken. It is suggested that mate selectivity, longevity, and stochastic factors are important components influencing male baboon reproductive success.

Keywords

Field Study Reproductive Success Behavioral Data Reproductive Behavior Physiological Difference 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aidara A, Badawi M, Tahiri-Zagret C, Robyn C (1981) Changes in concentrations of serum prolactin, FSH, oestradiol and progesterone and of the sex skin during the menstrual cycle in the mangabey monkey (Cercocebus atys lunulatus). J Reprod Fert 62:475–481Google Scholar
  2. Aitken RJ, Best FSM, Richardson DW, Djahanbakhch O, Lees ML (1982) The correlates of fertilizing capacity in normal fertile men. Fertil Steril 38:68–76Google Scholar
  3. Alexander RD (1974) The evolution of social behavior. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 5:325–383Google Scholar
  4. Alexander RD, Hoogland JL, Howard RD, Noonan KM, Sherman PW (1979) Sexual dimorphisms and breeding systems in pinnipeds, ungulates, primates, and humans. In: Chagnon NA, Irons W (eds) Evolutionary biology and human social behavior: an anthropological perspective. Duxbury Press, North Scituate, MA, pp 402–435Google Scholar
  5. Altmann J (1974) Observational study of behavior: sampling methods. Behaviour 49:227–267Google Scholar
  6. Altmann J (1980) Baboon mothers and infants. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  7. Altmann J, Altmann S, Hausfater G (1978) Primate infant's effects on mother's future reproduction. Science 201:1028–1030Google Scholar
  8. Altmann SA (1962) A field study of the sociobiology of the rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta. Ann NY Acad Sci 102:338–435Google Scholar
  9. Banks MJ, Thompson DJ (1985) Lifetime mating success in the damselfly Coenagrion puella. Anim Behav 33:1175–1183Google Scholar
  10. Barash DP (1977) Sociobiology and behavior. Elsevier North-Holland, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. Bedford JM (1970) Sperm capacitation and fertilization in mammals. Biol Reprod, Suppl 2:128–158Google Scholar
  12. Bedford JM (1972) Sperm transport, capacitation and fertilization. In: Balin H, Glasser S (eds) Reproductive biology. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, pp 338–392Google Scholar
  13. Bedford JM (1983) Significance of the need for sperm capacitation before fertilization in eutherian mammals. Biol Reprod 28:108–120Google Scholar
  14. Bercovitch FB (1983) Time budgets and consortships in olive baboons (Papio anubis). Folia primatol 41:180–190Google Scholar
  15. Bercovitch FB (1984) Male knowledgeability of female fecundability in olive baboons. Am J Primatol 6:398–399 (Abstr)Google Scholar
  16. Bercovitch FB (1985) Reproductive tactics in adult female and adult male olive baboons. PhD diss, University of California at Los AngelesGoogle Scholar
  17. Bercovitch FB (1986) Male rank and reproductive activity in savanna baboons. Int J Primatol 7:533–550Google Scholar
  18. Bercovitch FB (1987) Coalitions, cooperation, and reproductive tactics among adult male olive baboons. Anim Behav (in press)Google Scholar
  19. Blakley GA, Blaine CR, Morton WR (1977) Correlation of perineal detumescence and ovulation in the pigtail macaque (Macaca nemestrina). Lab Anim Sci 27:352–355Google Scholar
  20. Blankenship L, Qvortrup S (1974) Resource management on a Kenya ranch. JS Afri Wildl Manage Assoc 4:185–190Google Scholar
  21. Bramblett CA (1969) Non-metric skeletal age changes in the Darajani baboon. Am J Phys Anthro 30:161–172Google Scholar
  22. Chapais B (1983) Reproductive activity in relation to male dominance and the likelihood of ovulation in rhesus monkeys. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 12:215–228Google Scholar
  23. Clutton-Brock TH (1983) Selection in relation to sex. In: Bendell DS (ed) Evolution from molecules to man. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 457–481Google Scholar
  24. Clutton-Brock TH, Guinness FE, Albon SD (1982) Red deer: behavior and ecology of two sexes. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  25. Collins DA (1981) Social behaviour and patterns of mating among adult yellow baboons (Papio c. cynocephalus L. 1776). PhD diss, University of EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  26. Collins DA (1986) Interactions between adult male and infant yellow baboons (Papio c. cynocephalus) in Tanzania. Anim Behav 34:430–443Google Scholar
  27. Cords M (1984) Mating patterns and social structure in redtail monkeys (Cercopithecus ascanius). Z Tierpsychol 64:313–329Google Scholar
  28. Cords M, Mitchell BJ, Tsingalia HM, Rowell TE (1986) Promiscuous mating among blue monkeys in the Kakamega Forest, Kenya. Ethology 72:214–226Google Scholar
  29. Curie-Cohen M, Yoshihara D, Luttrell L, Benforado K, Mac-Cluer JW, Stone WH (1983) The effects of dominance on mating behavior and paternity in a captive troop of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Am J Primatol 5:127–138Google Scholar
  30. Dawkins R (1976) The selfish gene. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  31. DeVore I (1963) Mother-infant relations in free-ranging baboons. In: Rheingold HL (ed) Maternal behavior in mammals. Wiley, New York, pp 305–335Google Scholar
  32. DeVore I (1965) Male dominance and mating behavior in baboons. In: Beach FA (ed) Sex and behavior. Wiley, New York, pp 266–289Google Scholar
  33. Dixon WJ, Brown MB, Engelman L, Frane JW Hill MA, Jennrich RI, Toporek JD (1981) BMDP statistical software. University of California Press, BerekeleyGoogle Scholar
  34. Duvall SW, Bernstein IS, Gordon TP (1976) Paternity and status in a rhesus monkey group. J Reprod Fert 47:25–31Google Scholar
  35. Edwards RG (1980) Conception in the human female. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  36. Emlen ST, Oring LW (1977) Ecology, sexual selection, and the evolution of mating systems. Science 197:215–223Google Scholar
  37. Fedigan LM (1983) Dominance and reproductive success in primates. Yrbk Phys Anthro 26:91–129Google Scholar
  38. France JT, Graham FM, Gosling L, Hair PI (1984) A prospective study of the preselection of the sex of offspring by timing intercourse relative to ovulation. Fert Steril 41:894–900Google Scholar
  39. Freund M (1963) Effect of frequency of emission on semen output and an estimate of daily sperm production in man. J Reprod Fert 6:269–286Google Scholar
  40. Frost J, Cummins HZ (1981) Motility assay of human sperm by photon correlation spectroscopy. Science 212:1520–1522Google Scholar
  41. Gillman J, Gilbert C (1946) The reproductive cycle of the chacma baboon (Papio ursinus) with special reference to the problems of menstrual irregularities as assessed by the behaviour of the sex skin. S Afri J Med Sci (Suppl) 11:1–54Google Scholar
  42. Gould JE, Overstreet JW, Hanson FW (1984) Assessment of human sperm function after recovery from the female reproductive tract. Biol Reprod 31:888–894Google Scholar
  43. Gould KG (1982) Ovulation detection and artifical insemination. Am J Primatol, Suppl 1:15–26Google Scholar
  44. Graham CE (1981) Menstrual cycle of the great apes. In: Graham CE (ed) Reproductive biology of the great apes. Academic Press, New York, pp 1–43Google Scholar
  45. Hafernik JE, Garrison RW (1986) Mating success and survival rate in a population of damselflies: results at variance with theory? Am Nat 128:353–365Google Scholar
  46. Harding RSO (1976) Ranging patterns of a troop of baboons (Papio anubis) in Kenya. Folia primatol 25:143–185Google Scholar
  47. Hausfater G (1975) Dominance and reproduction in baboons (Papio cynocephalus). In: Contrib primatology, vol 7. Karger, BaselGoogle Scholar
  48. Hausfater G, Altmann J, Altmann SA (1986) Sexual selection in Amboseli baboons: analysis of adult male rank occupancy patterns. Am J Primatol 10:406–407 (Abstr)Google Scholar
  49. Hausfater G, Saunders CD, Chapman M (1981) Some applications of computer models to the study of primate mating and social systems. In: Alexander RD, Tinkle DW (eds) Natural selection and social behavior. Chiron Press, New York, pp 345–360Google Scholar
  50. Hendrickx AG, Kraemer DC (1969) Observations on the menstrual cycle, optimal mating time and pre-implantation embryos of the baboon, Papio anubis and Papio cynocephalus. J Reprod Fert, Suppl 6:119–128Google Scholar
  51. Hendrickx AG, Kraemer DC (1971) Reproduction. In: Hendrickx AG (ed) Embryology of the baboon. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 3–30Google Scholar
  52. Hodges JK, Tarara R, Wangula C (1984) Circulating steroids and the relationship between ovarian and placental secretion during early and mid-pregnancy in the baboon. Am J Primatol 7:357–366Google Scholar
  53. Hodges JK, Tarara R, Hearn JP, Else JG (1986) The detection of ovulation and early pregnancy in the baboon by direct measurement of conjugated steroids in urine. Am J Primatol 10:329–338Google Scholar
  54. Howard RD (1978) The evolution of mating strategies in bullfrogs, Rana catesbeina. Evolution 32:850–871Google Scholar
  55. Howard RD (1979) Estimating reproductive success in natural populations. Am Nat 114:221–231Google Scholar
  56. Howard RD (1983) Sexual selection and variation in reproductive success in a long-lived organism. Am Nat 122:301–325Google Scholar
  57. Jolly A (1985) The evolution of primate behavior, 2d ed. Macmillan, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  58. Koenig WD, Albano SS (1987) Lifetime reproductive success, selection, and the opportunity for selection in the white-tailed skimmer Plathemis lydia (Odonata: Libellulidae). Evolution 41:22–36Google Scholar
  59. Koyama T, de La Pena A, Hagino N (1977) Plasma estrogen, progestin, and luteinizing hormone during the normal menstrual cycle in the baboon: role of luteinizing hormone. Am J Obstet Gynecol 127:67–72Google Scholar
  60. LeBoeuf BJ (1974) Male-male competition and reproductive success in elephant seals. Am Zool 14:163–176Google Scholar
  61. Levin RM, Latimore J, Wein AJ, Van Arsdalen KN (1986) Correlation of sperm count with frequency of ejaculation. Fert Steril 45:732–734Google Scholar
  62. Lindburg DG (1983) Mating behavior and estrus in the Indian rhesus monkey. In: Seth PK (ed) Perspectives in primate biology. Today & Tomorrow's Printers & Publishers, New Delhi, pp 45–61Google Scholar
  63. MacLennan AH, Wynn RM (1971) Menstrual cycle of the baboon. I. Clinical features, vaginal cytology and endometrial histology. Obsr Gyn 38:350–358Google Scholar
  64. Manzolillo DL (1982) Intertroop transfer by adult male Papio anubis. PhD diss, University of California at Los AngelesGoogle Scholar
  65. Marston JH, Kelly WA (1968) Time relationships of spermatozoan penetration into the egg of the rhesus monkey. Nature 217:1073–1074Google Scholar
  66. Mortimer D, Templeton AA (1982) Sperm transport in the human female reproductive tract in relation to semen analysis characteristics and the time of ovulation. J Reprod Fert 64:401–408Google Scholar
  67. Nadler RD, Graham CE, Gosselin RE, Collins DC (1985) Serum levels of gonadotropins and gonadal steroids, including testosterone, during the menstrual cycle of the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). Am J Primatol 9:273–284Google Scholar
  68. Nicolson NA (1982) Weaning and the development of independence in olive baboons. PhD diss, Harvard UniversityGoogle Scholar
  69. Oldereid NB, Gordeladze JO, Kirkhus B, Purvis K (1984) Human sperm characteristics during frequent ejaculation. J Reprod Fert 71:135–140Google Scholar
  70. Orians GH (1969) On the evolution of mating systems in birds and mammals. Am Nat 103:589–603Google Scholar
  71. Packer C (1977) Reciprocal altruism in Papio anubis. Nature 265:441–443Google Scholar
  72. Packer C (1979) Inter-troop transfer and inbreeding avoidance in Papio anubis. Anim Behav 27:1–36Google Scholar
  73. Packer C (1980) Male care and exploitation of infants in Papio anubis. Anim Behav 28:512–520Google Scholar
  74. Packer C (1985) Dispersal and inbreeding avoidance. Anim Behav 33:676–678Google Scholar
  75. Partridge L, Halliday T (1984) Mating patterns and mate choice. In: Krebs JR, Davies NB (eds) Behavioural ecology, 2nd ed. Sinauer, Sunderland, pp 222–250Google Scholar
  76. Pope VZ, Pope CE, Beck LR (1983) A 4-year summary of the nonsurgical recovery of baboon embryos: a report on 498 eggs. Am J Primatol 5:357–364Google Scholar
  77. Popp JL (1978) Male baboons and evolutionary principles. PhD diss, Harvard UniversityGoogle Scholar
  78. Ransom TW (1981) Beach troop of the Gombe. Bucknell University Press, LewisburgGoogle Scholar
  79. Ranson TW, Ransom BS (1971) Adult male-infant relations among baboons (Papio anubis). Folia primatol 16:179–195Google Scholar
  80. Rasmussen KLR (1980) Consort behaviour and mate selection in yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus). PhD diss, Cambridge UniversityGoogle Scholar
  81. Richard AF (1985) Primates in nature. Freeman, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  82. Saayman GS (1970) The menstrual cycle and sexual behaviour in a troop of free-ranging chacma baboons. Folia primatol 12:81–110Google Scholar
  83. Saayman GS (1971) Behaviour of the adult males in a troop of free-ranging chacma baboons (Papio ursinus). Folia primatol 15:36–57Google Scholar
  84. Schwartz D, Mayaux M-J, Spira A, Moscato M-L, Jouannet P, Czyglik F, David G (1983) Semen characteristics as a function of age in 833 fertile men. Fert Steril 39:530–535Google Scholar
  85. Scott LM (1984) Reproductive behavior of adolescent female baboons (Papio anubis) in Kenya. In: Small MF (ed) Female primates: studies by women primatologists. Liss, New York, pp 77–100Google Scholar
  86. Seyfarth RM (1978) Social relationships among adult male and female baboons. I. Behaviour during sexual consortship. Behaviour 64:204–226Google Scholar
  87. Shaikh AA, Celaya CL, Gomez I, Shaikh SA (1982) Temporal relationship of hormonal peaks to ovulation and sex skin deturgescence in the baboon. Primates 23:444–452Google Scholar
  88. Shideler SE, Lasley BL (1982) A comparison of primate ovarian cycles. Am J Primatol, Suppl 1:171–180Google Scholar
  89. Shiveley C, Smith DG (1985) Social status and reproductive success of male Macaca fascicularis. Am J Primatol 9:129–135Google Scholar
  90. Smuts BB (1985) Sex and friendship in baboons. Aldine, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  91. Sokal RR, Rohlf FJ (1981) Biometry, Freeman, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  92. Stein DM (1984a) Ontogeny of infant-adult male relationships during the first year of life for yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus). In: Taub DM (ed) Primate paternalism. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, pp 213–243Google Scholar
  93. Stein DM (1984b) The sociobiology of infant and adult male baboons. Ablex, Norwood, NJGoogle Scholar
  94. Stern BR, Smith DG (1984) Sexual behaviour and paternity in three captive groups of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Anim Behav 32:23–32Google Scholar
  95. Strum SC (1982) Agonistic dominance in male baboons: an alternative view. Int J Primatol 3:175–202Google Scholar
  96. Strum SC (1984) Why males use infants. In: Taub DM (ed) Primate paternalism. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, pp 146–185Google Scholar
  97. Suarez B, Ackerman DR (1971) Social dominance and reproductive behavior in male rhesus monkeys. Am J Phys Anthro 35:219–222Google Scholar
  98. Sutherland WJ (1985) Chance can produce a sex difference in variance in mating success and explain Bateman's data. Anim Behav 33:1349–1352Google Scholar
  99. Trivers RL (1972) Parental investment and sexual selection. In: Campbell B (ed) Sexual selection and the descent of man, 1871–1971. Aldine, Chicago, pp 136–179Google Scholar
  100. Vander AJ, Sherman JH, Luciano DS (1975) Human physiology. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  101. Wade MJ (1979) Sexual selection and variance in reproductive success. Am Nat 114:742–747Google Scholar
  102. Wade MJ, Arnold SJ (1980) The intensity of sexual selection in relation to male sexual behavior, female choice, and sperm precedence. Anim Behav 28:446–461Google Scholar
  103. Wildt DE, Doyle LL, Stone SC, Harrison RM (1977) Correlation of perineal swelling with serum ovarian hormone levels, vaginal cytology, and the ovarian follicular development during the baboon reproductive cycle. Primates 18:261–270Google Scholar
  104. Wilson EO (1975) Sociobiology. Belknap Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  105. Zar JH (1974) Biostatistical analysis. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJGoogle Scholar
  106. Zuckerman S (1930) The menstrual cycle of the primates. Part I. General nature and homology. Proc Zool Soc Lond (1930):691–754Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fred B. Bercovitch
    • 1
  1. 1.Wisconsin Regional Primate Research CenterUniversity of WisconsinMadisonUSA

Personalised recommendations