Rheumatology International

, Volume 13, Issue 4, pp 169–174 | Cite as

Primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome and cerebral ischemia: report on acute intervention in two cases and literature review with emphasis on therapeutic options

  • S. Braune
  • R. Siekmann
  • P. Waith
  • C. H. Lücking


In two patients with primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome and acute cerebrovascular ischemic events, local intraarterial fibrinolysis and intravenous heparin therapy, respectively, resulted in a limitation of persisting neurological deficits. On the basis of the 35 case reports available a combination of anticoagulation with warfarin, plus immunosuppression with steroids and/or cyclophosphamide or azathioprine, appears to be the best treatment to prevent further cerebral ischemic events. The therapeutic options are reviewed and discussed.

Key words

Antiphospholipid antibodies Ischemic events Intraarterial lysis Anticoagulation Immunosuppression 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Braune
    • 1
  • R. Siekmann
    • 2
  • P. Waith
    • 3
  • C. H. Lücking
    • 1
  1. 1.Neurologische Universitätsklinik FreiburgFreiburgGermany
  2. 2.Radiologische KlinikRudolf-Virchow-KrankenhausBerlinGermany
  3. 3.Abt. für RheumatologieMedizinische Universitätsklinik FreiburgFreiburgGermany

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