Bulletin of Volcanology

, Volume 55, Issue 5, pp 379–388 | Cite as

A summary of sulfur dioxide emission rate measuremnts from Guatemalan volcanoes

  • RJ Andres
  • WI Rose
  • RE Stoiber
  • SN Williams
  • O Matías
  • R Morales
Article

Abstract

Measurements of the sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rate from three Guatemalan volcanoes provide data which are consistent with theoretical and laboratory studies of eruptive and shallow magma chamber processes. In particular, unerupted magma makes a major contribution to the measured SO2 emission rates at Santiaguito, a continuously erupting dacitic volcanic dome. Varying shallow magma convection rates can explain the variations in SO2 emission rates at Santiaguito. At Fuego, a basaltic volcano currently in repose, SO2 emission rate measurements are consistent with a high level magma body that is crystallizing and releasing volatiles. At Pacaya, a continuously erupting basaltic volcano, recent SO2 emission rate measurements support laboratory simulation studies of strombolian eruptions; these studies indicate that the majority of gas escapes during eruptions and little gas escapes between eruptions.

Average SO2 emission rates over the last 20 years for Santiaguito, Fuego and Pacaya are 80, 160 and 260 Mg/d, respectively. On a global scale, these three volcanoes account for 1% of the annual global volcanic output of SO2. Santiaguito and Pacaya, together, emit 6% of the total annual SO2 emitted by continuously erupting volcanoes.

Even though SO2 measurements at these volcanoes have been made infrequently and by different investigators, the collective data help to establish a useful baseline by which to judge future changes. A more complete record of SO2 emission rates from these volcanoes could lead to a better understanding of their eruption mechanisms and reduce the impact of their future eruptions on Guatemalan society.

Key words

Sulfur dioxide COSPEC Santiaguito Fuego Pacaya Guatemala magmatic processes 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Andres RJ (1992) Remote sensing of volcanic H2O, CO2 and SO2 emissions. Ph. D. Dissertation. Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 167 ppGoogle Scholar
  2. Andres RJ, Kyle PR, Stokes JB, Rose WI (1989) SO2 from episode 48A eruption, Hawaii: Sulfur dioxide emissions from the episode 48A East Rift zone eruption of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii. Bull Volcanol 52:113–117Google Scholar
  3. Andres RJ, Rose WI, Kyle PR, deSilva S, Francis P, Gardeweg M, Moreno Roa H (1991) Excessive sulfur dioxide emissions from Chilean volcanoes. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 46:323–329Google Scholar
  4. Andres RJ, Kyle PR, Chuan RL (1992) Sulfur dioxide, particle and elemental emissions from Mount Etna, Italy during July 1987. Geol Rund (submitted)Google Scholar
  5. Bonis S, Salazar O (1973) The 1971 and 1973 eruptions of Volcán Fuego, Guatemala and some socio-economic considerations for the volcanologist. Bull Volcanol 37:394–400Google Scholar
  6. Bornhorst TJ, Rose Jr WI, Bornhorst LE (1984) Magma evolution in shallow high-Al basalt bodies below Pacaya Volcano, Guatemala. EOS 65:1153Google Scholar
  7. Cadle RD, Kiang CS, Louis J-F (1976) The global scale dispersion of the eruption clouds from major volcanic eruptions. J Geophys Res 81:3125–3132Google Scholar
  8. Carroll MR, Rutherford MJ (1985) Sulfide and sulfate saturation in hydrous silicate melts. J Geophys Res 90:C601-C612Google Scholar
  9. Casadevall TJ, Johnston DA, Harris DM, Rose Jr WI, Malinconico LL, Stoiber RE, Bornhorst TJ, Williams SN, Woodruff L, Thompson JM (1981) SO2 emission rates at Mount St. Helens from March 29 through December, 1980. USGS Prof Pap 1250:193–200Google Scholar
  10. Casadevall T, Rose W, Gerlach T, Greenland LP, Ewert J, Wunderman R, Symonds R (1983) Gas emissions and the eruptions of Mount St. Helens through 1992. Science 221:1383–1385Google Scholar
  11. Chartier TA, Rose WI, Stokes JB (1988) Detailed record of SO2 emissions from Pu'u O'o between episodes 33 and 34 of the 1983–86 ERZ eruption, Kilauea, Hawaii. Bull Volcanol 50:215–228Google Scholar
  12. Crafford TC (1975) SO2 emission of the 1974 eruption of Volcán Fuego, Guatemala. Bull Volcanol 39:536–556Google Scholar
  13. Cullis CF, Hirschler MM (1980) Atmospheric sulphur: Natural and man-made sources. Atmos Env 14:1263–1278Google Scholar
  14. Devine JD, Sigurdsson H, Davis AN, Self S (1984) Estimates of sulfur and chlorine yield to the atmosphere from volcanic aruptions and potential climatic effects. J Geophys Res 89:6309–6325Google Scholar
  15. Eggers AA (1971) The geology and petrology of the Amatitlán Quadrangle, Guatemala. PhD Dissertation, Dartmouth College, Hanover, 221 ppGoogle Scholar
  16. Eggers AA (1983) Temporal gravity and elevation changes at Pacaya Volcano, Guatemala. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 19:223–237Google Scholar
  17. Fournelle J (1990) Anhydrite in Nevado del Ruiz November 1985 pumice: relevance to the sulfur problem. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 42:189–201Google Scholar
  18. Geist DJ, Baker BH, McBirney AR (1985) GPP: A program package for creating and using geochemical data files. Center of Volcanology, Univ of Oregon. 33 ppGoogle Scholar
  19. Gerlach TM (1986) Exsolution of H2O, CO2, and S during eruptive episodes at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. J Geophys Res 91:12 177–12 185Google Scholar
  20. Gerlach TM, Nordlie BE (1975) The C−O−H−S gaseous system, Part II: Temperature, atomic composition, and molecular equilibria in volcanic gases. Am J Sci 275:377–94Google Scholar
  21. Goldberg ED (1976) The health of the oceans. UNESCO Press, Paris, 172 ppGoogle Scholar
  22. Greenland LP, Rose WI, Stokes JB (1985) An estimate of gas emissions and magmatic gas content from Kilauea volcano. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 49:125–129Google Scholar
  23. Jaeschke W, Berresheim H, Georgii H-W (1982) Sulfur emissions from Mt. Etna. J Geophys Res 87:7253–7261Google Scholar
  24. Jaggar TA (1940) Magmatic gases. Am J Sci 238:313–353Google Scholar
  25. Jaupart C, Vergniolle S (1988) Laboratory models of Hawaiian and Strombolian eruptions. Nature 331:58–60Google Scholar
  26. Kyle PR, Meeker K, Finnegan D (1990) Emission rates of sulfur dioxide, trace gases and metals from Mount Erebus, Antarctica. Geophys Res Lett 17:2125–2128Google Scholar
  27. Lazrus AL, Cadle RD, Gandrud BW, Greenberg JP, Huebert BJ, Rose JR WI (1979) Sulfur and halogen chemistry of the stratosphere and of volcanic eruption plumes. J Geophys Res 84:7869–7875Google Scholar
  28. Lovering TS (1935) Theory of heat conduction applied to geologic problems. Geol Soc Am 46:69–94Google Scholar
  29. Luhr JF, Carmichael ISE, Varekamp JC (1984) The 1982 eruptions of El Chichón Volcano, Chiapas, Mexico: Mineralogy and petrology of the anhydrite-bearing pumices. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 23:69–108Google Scholar
  30. Malinconico Jr LL (1979) Fluctuations in SO2 emission during recent eruptions of Etna. Nature 278:43–45Google Scholar
  31. Malinconico Jr LL (1987) On the variation of SO2 emission from volcanoes. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 33:231–237Google Scholar
  32. Martin DP, Rose Jr WI (1981) Behavioural patterns of Fuego Volcano, Guatemala. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 10:67–81Google Scholar
  33. Metrich N, Clocchiatti R (1989) Melt inclusion investigation of the volatile behaviour in historic alkali basaltic magmas of Etna. Bull Volcanol 51:185–198Google Scholar
  34. Millán MM, Hoff RM (1978) Remote sensing of air pollutants by correlation spectroscopy — instrumental response characteristics. Atmos Env 12:853–864Google Scholar
  35. Palais J, Sigurdsson H (1989) Petrologic evidence of volatile emissions from major historic and pre-historic volcanic eruptions. In: Berger A, Dickinson RE, Kidson RE (eds) Understanding Climate Change. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, 31–53Google Scholar
  36. Rose Jr WI (1972) Santiaguito volcanic dome, Guatemala. Geol Soc Am Bull 83:1413–1434Google Scholar
  37. Rose WI (1987a) Santa María, Guatemala: bimodal soda-rich calcalkalic stratovolcano. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 33:109–129Google Scholar
  38. Rose WI (1987b) Volcanic activity at Santiaguito volcano, 1976–1984. In: Fink J (ed), The emplacement of silicic domes and lava flows. Geol Soc Am Spec Pap 212:17–27Google Scholar
  39. Rose Jr WI, Grant NK, Hahn GA, Lange IM, Powell JL, Easter J, DeGraff JM (1977) The evolution of Santa María Volcano, Guatemala. J Geol 85:63–87Google Scholar
  40. Rose Jr WI, Anderson Jr AT, Woodruff LG, Bonis SB (1978) The October 1974 basaltic tephra from Fuego volcano: description and history of the magma body. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 4:3–53Google Scholar
  41. Rose Jr WI, Stoiber RE, Malinconico LL (1982) Eruptive gas compositions and fluxes of explosive volcanoes: budget of S and Cl emitted from Fuego volcano, Guatemala. In: Thorpe RS (ed) Andesites: Orogenic Andesites and Related Rocks. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, England, 669–676Google Scholar
  42. SEAN Bulletin (1987a) Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 12:1:10–11Google Scholar
  43. SEAN Bulletin (1987b) Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 12:7:2–4Google Scholar
  44. SEAN Bulletin (1989) Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 14:25–7Google Scholar
  45. Sigurdsson H, Carey SN, Palais JM, Devine J (1990) Pre-eruption compositional gradients and mixing of andesite and dacite magma erupted from Nevado del Ruiz Volcano, Colomnia in 1985. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 41:127–151Google Scholar
  46. Sparks RSJ, Sigurdsson H, Wilson L (1977) Magma mixing: a mechanism for triggering acid explosive eruptions. Nature 267:315–318Google Scholar
  47. Spera FJ, Yuen DA, Kirschvink SJ (1982) Thermal boundary layer convection in silicic magma chambers: effects of temperature-dependent rheology and implications for thermogravitational chemical fractionation. J Geophys Res 87:8755–8767Google Scholar
  48. Stoiber RE, Rose Jr WI (1969) Recent volcanic and fumarolic activity at Santiaguito Volcano, Guatemala. Bull Volcanol 33:475–502Google Scholar
  49. Stoiber RE, Jepsen A (1973) Sulfur dioxide contributions to the atmosphere by volcanoes. Science 182:577–578Google Scholar
  50. Stoiber RE, Malinconico Jr LL, Williams SN (1983a) Use of the correlation spectrometer at volcanoes. In: Tazieff H, Sabroux JC (eds), Forecasting Volcanic Events. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 425–444Google Scholar
  51. Stoiber RE, Williams SN, Huebert BJ (1983b) Sulfur dioxide, hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid and hydrobromic acid from volcanoes: annual atmospheric contribution. Geol Soc Am Abstr Prog 15:698–699Google Scholar
  52. Stoiber RE, Williams SN, Huebert B (1987) Annual contribution of sulfur dioxide to the atmosphere by volcanoes. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 33:1–8Google Scholar
  53. Trial AF, Spera FJ (1990) Mechanisms for the generation of compositional heterogeneities in magma chambers. Geol Soc Am Bull 102:353–367Google Scholar
  54. Vergniolle S, Jaupart C (1986) Separated two-phase flow and basaltic eruptions. J Geophys Res 91:12 842–12 860Google Scholar
  55. White DE, Waring GA (1963) Data of geochemistry, 6th edition, Chapter K. Volcanic emanations. USGS Prof Pap 440-KGoogle Scholar
  56. Williams SN (1979) The October, 1902 eruption of Santa María Volcano, Guatemala. MA Thesis. Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH. 140 ppGoogle Scholar
  57. Williams SN, Self S (1983) The October 1902 plinian eruption of Santa María Volcano, Guatemala. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 16:33–56Google Scholar
  58. Williams SN, Sturchio NC, Calyache VML, Mendez FR, Londoño CA, Garcia PN (1990) Sulfur dioxide from Nevado del Ruiz volcano, Colombia: total flux and isotopic constraints on its origin. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 42:53–68Google Scholar
  59. World Resources 1990–91 (1990) Oxford University Press, Oxford, 244–245Google Scholar
  60. Wunderman RL, Rose WI (1984) Amatitlan, an actively resurging cauldron 10 km south of Guatemala City. J Geophys Res 89:8525–8539Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • RJ Andres
    • 1
  • WI Rose
    • 1
  • RE Stoiber
    • 2
  • SN Williams
    • 3
  • O Matías
    • 4
  • R Morales
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Geological Engineering, Geology and GeophysicsMichigan Technological UniversityHoughtonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Earth SciencesDartmouth CollegeHanoverUSA
  3. 3.Department of GeologyArizona State UniversityTempeUSA
  4. 4.Sección de VolcanologíaINSIVUMEHGuatemala CityGUATEMALA

Personalised recommendations