Advertisement

Acta Neuropathologica

, Volume 88, Issue 2, pp 143–150 | Cite as

Expression of basic fibroblast growth factor, nerve growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor and transforming growth factor-β in human brain abscess

  • H. Mei Liu
  • Hsio Bai Yang
  • Robert M. Chen
Regular Paper

Abstract

We correlated the histopathological findings of six human brain abscesses with the expression of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), nerve growth factor (NGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ). The clinical courses ranged from 1 month to 1 year and viridans streptoccus was the major pathogen. In early abscesses, we demonstrated strong bFGF and moderate NGF and PDGF immunoreactivities in neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages infiltrating the abscess wall and in the fibrin layer lining the abscess center. In the subacute cases, growth of capillaries and fibroblasts into the fibrin layer and deposition of collagen resulted in the formation of a mesodermal layer between the abscess center and the outer gliotic layer. The proliferative non-neural cells (endothelial cells, fibroblasts and glial cells) expressed mild to strong bFGF, NGF and PDGF immunoreactivities, while strong TGFβ staining was seen in the extracellular matrix. A loss of growth factor expression and increased fibrosis was seen in the chronic case. These findings suggest that bFGF, NGF, PDGF and TGFβ produced by the continued influx of leukocytes and by the proliferating non-neural cells may mediate various steps of defense mechanisms and wound healing such as angiogenesis, fibrogenesis and gliosis.

Key words

Brain abscess Fibroblast growth factor Nerve growth factor Platelet-derived growth factor Transforming growth factor-beta 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Allen RE, Dodson MV, Luiten LS (1984) Regulation of skeletal muscle satellite cell proliferation by bovine pituitary fibroblast growth factor. Exp Cell Res 152: 154–160Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Assoian RK, Komoriya A, Meyers CA Miller DM, Sporn MB (1983) Transforming growth factor-beta in human platelets. J Biol Chem 258: 7155–7160Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Assoian RK, Fleurdelys BE, Stevenson HC, Miller PJ, Madtes DK, Raines EW, Ross R, Sporn MB (1987) Expression and secretion of type β transforming growth factor by activated human macrophages. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84: 6020–6024Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Baird A, Durkin T (1986) Inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation by type-β transforming grwoth factor: interactions with acidic and basic fibroblast growth factor. Biochem Biophy Res Commun 138: 476–482Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bandtlow CE, Heumann R, Schwab ME, Thoenen H (1987) Cellular localization of nerve growth factor by in situ hybridization. EMBO J 6: 891–899Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Boyle MDP, Lawman MJP, Gee AP, Young M (1985) Nerve growth factor: a chemotactic factor for polymorphonuclear leukocytes in vivo. J Immunol 135: 564–568Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bracci-Laudiero L, Aloe L, Levi-Montalcini R, Galeazzi M, Schilter D, Scully JL, Otten U (1993) Increased levels of NGF in sera of systemic lupus erythematosus. Neuroreport 4: 563–565Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Britt RH, Enzmann DR, Yeager AS (1981) Neuropathological and computerized tomogaphic findings in experimental brain abscess. J Neurosurg 55: 590–603Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Broadley KN, Aquino AM, Woodward SC, Buckley-Sturrock A, Sato Y, Rikin DB, Davidson JM (1986) Monospecific antibodies implicate basic fibroblast growth factor in normal wound repair. Lab Invest 61: 571–575Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cancilla PA, Bready J, Berliner J, Sharifi-Nia H, Toga AW, Santori EM, Scully S, de Vellis J (1992) Expression of mRNA for glial fibrillary acidic protein after experimental cerebral injury. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 51: 560–565Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chen J-K, Hoshi H, McKeehan WL (1987) Transforming growth factor β specifically stimulates synthesis of proteoglycan in human adult arterial smooth muscle cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84: 5287–5291Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cuevas P, Burgos J, Baird A (1988) Basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF) promotes cartilage repair in vivo. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 156: 611–618Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Derynck R, Jarrett JA, Chen EY, Eaton DH, Bell JR, Assoian RK, Roberts AB, Sporn MB, Goeddel DV (1985) Human transforming growth factor-β complementary DNA sequence and expression in normal and transformed cells. Nature 316: 701–705Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Deuel TF (1987) Polypeptide growth factors: role in normal and abnormal cell growth. Annu Rev Cell Biol 3: 443–492Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Deuel TF, Senior RM, Huang JS, Griffin GL (1982) Chemotaxis of monocytes and neutrophils to platelet-derived growth factor. J Clin Invest 69: 1046–1049Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Finklestein SP, Apostolides PJ, Caday CG, Prosser J, Philips MF, Klagsbrun M (1988) Increased basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) immunoreactivity at the site of focal brain wounds. Brain Res 460: 253–259Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Flaris NA, Hickey W (1992) Development and characterization of an experimental model of brain abscess in the rat. Am J Pathol 141: 1299–1307Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Folkman J, Klagsbrun N (1987) Angiogenic factors. Science 235: 442–447Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gadient RA, Cron KC, Otten U (1990) Interleukin-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha synergistically stimulate nerve growth factor (NGF) release from cultured rat astrocytes. Neurosci Lett 117: 335–340Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Goedert M, Fine A, Hunt SP, Ullrich A (1988) Nerve growth factor mRNA in peripheral and central rat tissue and in the human central nervous system: lesion effects in the rat brain and levels in Alzheimer's disease. Mol Brain Res 1: 85–92Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gomez-Pinilla F, Lee JW-K, Cotman CW (1992) Basic FGF in adult rat brain: cellular distribution and response to entorhinal lesion and fimbria-fornix transection. J Neurosci 12: 345–355Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gospodarowicz D (1991) Biological activities of fibroblast growth factors. Ann NY Acad Sci 638: 1–8Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Heumann R, Korsching S, Bandtlow C, Thoenen H (1987) Changes of nerve growth factor synthesis in nonneural cells in response to sciatic nerve transection. J Cell Biol 104: 1623–1631Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ignotz RA, Endo T, Massague J (1987) Regulation of fibronectin and type 1 collagen mRNA levels by transforming growth factor-beta. J Biol Chem 262: 6443–6446Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Klagsbrun M, Sasse J, Sullivan R, Smith JA (1986) Human tumor cells synthesize an endothelial cell growth factor that is structurally related to basic fibroblast growth factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83: 2448–2452Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Koroly MJ, Young M (1981) Nerve growth factor. Handb Exp Pharmacol 57: 249–254Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Laudiero LB, Aloe L, Levi-Montalcini R, Buttinelli C, Schilter D, Gillessen S, Otten U (1992) Multiple sclerosis patients express increased levels of beta-nerve growth factor in cerebrospinal fluid. Neurosci Lett 147: 9–12Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Levi-Montalcini R (1987) The nerve growth factor 35 years later. Science 237: 1154–1162Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Li AKC, Koroly MJ, Schattenkerk ME, Malt A, Young M (1980) Nerve growth factor: acceleration of the rate of wound healing in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77: 4379–4382Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Liu HM (1978) Axon-sheath cell interaction mediated by a neurotrophic substance. Exp Neurol 66: 123–134Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Liu HM (1988) Neovasculature and blood-brain barrier in ischemic brain infarct. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 75: 422–426Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Liu HM, Wang DL, Liu CY (1990) The interaction between endothelial cells with fibrin and collagen during angiogenesis in vivo. In: Liu CY, Chien S (eds) Fibrinogen, thrombosis, coagulation and fibrinolysis. Plenum Press, New York, pp 319–331Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Liu HM (1992) The role of extracellular matrix in peripheral nerve regeneration, a wound chamber study. Acta Neuropathol 83: 469–476Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Liu HM, Chen HH (1994) Correlation between fibroblast growth factor expression and cell proliferation in experimental brain infarct: studies with proliferating nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 53: 118–126Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ludwin SK (1985) Reaction of oligodendrocytes and astrocytes to trauma and implantation: a combined autoradiographic and immunohistochemical study. Lab Invest 52: 20–30Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Maciag T, Mehman T, Freisel R, Schreiber AB (1984) Heparin binds endothelial cell growth factor, the principle endothelial cell mitogen in bovine brain. Science 225: 932–935Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Matsuyama A, Iwata H, Okumura N, Yoshida S, Imaizumi K, Lee Y, Shiraishi S, Shiosaka S (1992) Localization of basic fibroblast growth factor-like immunoreactivity in the rat brain. Brain Res 587: 49–65Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Otten U, Ehrhard P, Peck R (1989) Nerve growth factor induces growth and differentiation of human B lymphocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86: 10059–10063Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Pierce GF (1990) Macrophages: important physiological and pathological sources of polypeptide growth factors. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2: 233–234Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Pierce GF, Mustoe TA, Lingelbach J, Masakowski VR, Griffin GL, Senior RM, Deuel TF (1989) Platelet-derived growth factor and transforming growth factor-β enhance tissue repair activities by unique mechanisms. J Cell Biol 109: 429–440Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Postlethwaite AE, Keski-Oja J, Moses HL, Kang AH (1987) Stimulation of the chemotactic migration of human fibroblasts by transforming growth factor β J Exp Med 165: 251–256Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Raivich G, Kreutzberg GW (1987) Expression of growth factor receptors in injured nervous tissue. 1. Axotomy leads to a shift in the cellular distribution of specific β-nerve growth factor binding in the injured and regenerating PNS. J Neurocytol 16: 689–700Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Reier P (1986) Gliosis following CNS injury: the anatomy of astrocytic scars and their influences on axonal elongation. In: Fedoroff S, Vernadakis A (eds) Astrocytes, cell biology and pathology of astrocytes, vol 3. Academic Press, New York, pp 236–324Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Roberts AB, Spron MB, Assoian RK, Smith JM, Roche NS, Wakefield ML, Heine UI, Liotta LA, Falanga V, Kehrl JH, Fauci AS (1986) Transforming growth factor type beta: rapid induction of fibrosis and angiogenesis in vivo and stimulation of collagen formation in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83: 4167–4171Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ross R, Raines EW, Bowen-Pope DF (1986) The biology of platelet-derived growth factor. Cell 46: 155–169Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Seppa H, Grotendorst S, Seppa S, Schiffman E, Martin GR (1982) Platelet-derived growth factor is chemotactic for fibroblasts. J Cell Biol 92: 584–588Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Walicke PA (1988) Basic and acidic fibroblast growth factors have trophic effects on neurons from multiple CNS regions. J Neurosci 8: 2618–2627Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Weller RO, Steart P (1984) Cytology of cerebral abscesses. An immunocytochemical and ultrastructural study. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 10: 305–30630Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Wheeler EF, Bothwell M (1992) Spatiotemporal pattern of expression of NGF and the low-affinitty NGF receptor in rat embryos suggest functional roles in tissue morphogenesis and myogenesis. J Neurosci 12: 930–945Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Yang S (1981) Brain abscesses: a review of 400 cases. J Neurosurg 55: 794–799Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Yeh H-J, Ruit KG, Wang Y-X, Parks WC, Snider WD (1991) PDGF-A chain is expressed by mammalian neurons during development and in maturity. Cell 64: 209–216Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Mei Liu
    • 1
  • Hsio Bai Yang
    • 1
  • Robert M. Chen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PathologyNational Cheng Kung University, Medical CollegeTainanTaiwan, R.O.C.

Personalised recommendations