Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology

, Volume 17, Issue 4, pp 363–369 | Cite as

Parental energy expenditure: a proximate cause of helper recruitment in the pied kingfisher (Ceryle rudis)

  • Heinz-Ulrich Reyer
  • Klaas Westerterp


Energy expenditure of adult Pied Kingfishers was measured with doubly-labeled water. Results were related to reproductive success of parents aided and unaided by helpers. Energetically stressed parents in a colony with poor food supply accepted potential helpers more often than unstressed birds in another colony where food was easily available. This treatment of helpers was reversed in both colonies through experimental manipulation of clutch size and hence energetic stress. Results are discussed in relation to the costs and benefits that helpers incur on the parents' fitness.


Energy Expenditure Reproductive Success Food Supply Parental Energy Stressed Parent 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Heinz-Ulrich Reyer
    • 1
  • Klaas Westerterp
    • 2
  1. 1.Max-Planck-Institut für VerhaltensphysiologieSeewiesenFederal Republic of Germany
  2. 2.Biomedisch CentrumMaastrichtThe Netherlands

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