The differences in both perceived benefits and attitudes toward running between male and female runners, and between runners who classified themselves as competitive runners (CR) or recreational runners (RR), was the focus of this study. Four-hundred and two runners completed the Ten-Minute Survey for Runners within two weeks of completing a marathon. RR, more so than CR, perceived greater benefits from running. However, CR expressed a more positive attitude toward running and its role in their lives than did RR. Men perceived running to be more beneficial to them than women. However, women, more so than men, felt running had a positive effect on self-image and their lives were richer because of running. Future research concerns on the effects of competition on the lives of women are explored.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Bem, S. (1974). The measurement of psychological androgyny. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 24, 155–162.
Berlin, P. (1974). The woman athlete. In E. Gerber & J. Felshin (Eds.), The American woman in sport. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co.
Brown, J. D., & Seigel, J. M. (1988) Exercise as a buffer of life stress. Health Psychology, 7, 3431–3353.
Carmack, M. A., & Martens, R. (1979). Measuring commitment to running: A survey of runners' attitudes and mental states. Journal of Sport Psychology, 1, 24–42.
Dayries, J., & Grimm, R. (1970). Personality traits of women athletes as measured by the EPPS. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 30, 299.
DelRey, P., & Sheppard, S. (1981). Relationship of psychological androgyny in female athletes to self-esteem. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 12, 165–175.
Duda, J. L., & Allison, M. T. (1990). Cross-cultural analysis in exercise and sport psychology: A void in the field. Journal of Sport Psychology, 12, 114–131.
Gill, D. (1988). Gender differences in competitive orientation of sport participants. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 19, 145–159.
Gill, D., & Deeter, T. (1988). Development of the Sport Orientation Questionnaire. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 59, 191–202.
Gill, D., Dzewaltowski, D., & Deeter, T. (1988). The relationship of competitiveness and achievement orientation to participation in sport and non-sport activities. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 10, 139–150.
Harris, D. V. (1979). Female sport today: Psychological considerations. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 10, 168–172.
Jackson, J. (1989). Race, ethnicity, and psychological theory and research. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 44, 1–2.
Kane, J. E. (1973). Psychology of sport with special reference to the female athlete. In D. Harris (Ed.), Proceedings from the National Research Conference on Women and Sport. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.
LeUnes, A. D., & Nation, J. (1989). Sport psychology: An introduction. Chicago, IL: Nelson-Hall.
Malumphy, T. M. (1968). Personality of women athletes in intercollegiate competition. Research Quarterly, 30, 610–620.
Matteo, S. (1988). The effect of gender-schematic processing on decision about sex-inappropriate sport behavior. Sex Roles, 18, 41–58.
Peterson, S., Weber, J. C., & Trousdale, W. (1967). Personality traits of women in team sports versus women in individual sports. Research Quarterly, 30, 686–689.
Sacks, M., & Sachs, M. (1981). Psychology of running. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Snyder, E., Kivlin, J., & Spreitzer, E. (1975). The female athlete: An analysis of objective and subjective role conflict. In D. Harris & R. Christina (Eds.), Psychology of sport and motor behavior. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.
Summers, J., Machin, V., & Sargent, G. (1983). Psycho-social factors related to marathon running. Journal of Sport Psychology, 5, 314–331.
Wrisberg, C. A., Draper, M., & Everett, J. (1988). Sex role orientation of male and female collegiate athletes from selected individual and team sports. Sex Roles, 19, 81–90.
About this article
Cite this article
Ziegler, S.G. Perceived benefits of marathon running in males and females. Sex Roles 25, 119–127 (1991). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00289849
- Social Psychology
- Positive Attitude
- Great Benefit
- Research Concern
- Female Runner