The analysis of visual imagery in magazine advertising can be approached directly or indirectly insofar as gender messages are concerned. Using Goffman's theoretical underpinning, some of the more subtle clues regarding gender relations, gender stereotyping, and gender roles were explored. Over 1000 advertisements, selected from Good Housekeeping, Sports Illustrated, Time, MS, Gentlemen's Quarterly, and Rolling Stone were content analyzed using Goffman's decoding behavior methodology. The results demonstrated that the feminine touch and ritualization of subordination were fairly often discovered; licensed withdrawal occurred somewhat; and relative size, function ranking, and the family very infrequently. The findings reported were provocative and suggestions for future research are enumerated.
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The authors would like to express their gratitude to Tracy Ellman for his assistance in this research project, and to Richard A. Stivers, Raymond L. Schmitt, and William L. Tolone for their theoretical and methodological contributions.
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Belknap, P., Leonard, W.M. A conceptual replication and extension of erving goffman's study of gender advertisements. Sex Roles 25, 103–118 (1991). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00289848
- Social Psychology
- Gender Role
- Relative Size
- Gender Stereotyping
- Function Ranking