This study shows that women are unlikely to be seen as leaders. Subjects (n=448) rated each member of a five-person group (shown in a photograph) on leadership attributes and also chose one of the five as “contributing most to the group.” Eight different stimulus slides were used. In two slides the “head-of-the-table” cue to group leadership was pitted against sex-role stereotypes. A man seated at the head of the table in a mixed-sex group was clearly seen as leader of his group, but a woman occupying the same position was ignored. The head-of-the-table cue identified women as leaders only in all-female stimulus groups. The data were consistent with the hypotheses that sex stereotypes still control social judgments, and that discrimination operates nonconsciously and in spite of good intentions.
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Porter, N., Geis, F.L. & Jennings (Walstedt), J. Are women invisible as leaders?. Sex Roles 9, 1035–1049 (1983). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00289420
- Social Psychology
- Group Leadership
- Good Intention
- Social Judgment
- Stimulus Group