Sex Roles

, Volume 24, Issue 9–10, pp 639–650

Traditional gender role beliefs and individual outcomes: An exploratory analysis

  • Leonard P. Stark

DOI: 10.1007/BF00288419

Cite this article as:
Stark, L.P. Sex Roles (1991) 24: 639. doi:10.1007/BF00288419


The results of a survey administered to 806 undergraduate students serve as the basis for analyzing the relationships among traditional gender roles, same-sex intimacy, and homophobia. High levels of homophobia and low levels of intimacy were found among those who believe strongly in the traditional roles. Previous research has shown both homophobia and a lack of intimacy to be harmful to individuals and for society. The present findings may, therefore, constitute empirical evidence of the negative effects of gender roles. Sex differences found in the survey results also support this contention. A general model of the consequences of traditional gender role beliefs for those who hold these views is also speculated.

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leonard P. Stark
    • 1
  1. 1.University of DelawareUSA

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