Gender-role conflict exists when gender roles have negative consequences for people. This research reports initial validity and reliability data on measures of gender-role conflict for men. Two measures, Gender Role Conflict Scale I and II (GRCS-I and GRCS-II) were constructed to assess patterns of gender-role conflict described in the literature. GRCS-I assesses men's personal gender-role attitudes, behaviors, and conflicts. GRCS-II assesses men's gender-role conflicts in specific gender-role conflict situations. Both GRCS measures and the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ) were administered to male college students (N=527). Initial factor-analytic data for GRCS-I and GRCS-II demonstrated eight meaningful factors. Acceptable test-retest and internal consistency reliabilities were found for both measures. MANOVA, ANOVA, and Tukey procedures indicated differences for subjects across the four PAQ categories. Significant gender-role conflict differences across the factors were found for men who were instrumental, expressive, or both instrumental and expressive. Results of these differences are reported, as well as implications for future development of both scales.
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The authors are indebted to Dr. Nancy Betz (Ohio State University) who generously gathered data for us during the Spring Semester, 1982. This research was supported by a grant from the General Research Fund of the University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. This paper was presented at the American Psychological Association Annual Convention, Washington, DC, August 26, 1982.
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O'Neil, J.M., Helms, B.J., Gable, R.K. et al. Gender-role conflict scale: College men's fear of femininity. Sex Roles 14, 335–350 (1986). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00287583
- Internal Consistency
- Gender Role
- Reliability Data
- Internal Consistency Reliability
- Role Conflict