Sex Roles

, Volume 10, Issue 9–10, pp 677–691 | Cite as

The etiology of children's stereotypes about sex differences in emotionality

  • Dana W. Birnbaum
  • William L. Croll


Contemporary preschool-aged children have pronounced sex-role stereotypes about emotionality. They feel that anger is a male characteristic, while fear, sadness, and happiness are female characteristics. Four studies investigated several possible sources of these stereotypes, including parental stereotypes, parental reinforcement practices, television programming, and actual sex-differences in emotionality. The results suggest that each of these sources may potentially contribute to children's stereotypes about emotionality.


Social Psychology Parental Reinforcement Television Programming Reinforcement Practice Male Characteristic 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dana W. Birnbaum
    • 1
  • William L. Croll
    • 2
  1. 1.University of MaineUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyCarleton UniversityOttawaCanada

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