Advertisement

Sex Roles

, Volume 10, Issue 9–10, pp 677–691 | Cite as

The etiology of children's stereotypes about sex differences in emotionality

  • Dana W. Birnbaum
  • William L. Croll
Article

Abstract

Contemporary preschool-aged children have pronounced sex-role stereotypes about emotionality. They feel that anger is a male characteristic, while fear, sadness, and happiness are female characteristics. Four studies investigated several possible sources of these stereotypes, including parental stereotypes, parental reinforcement practices, television programming, and actual sex-differences in emotionality. The results suggest that each of these sources may potentially contribute to children's stereotypes about emotionality.

Keywords

Social Psychology Parental Reinforcement Television Programming Reinforcement Practice Male Characteristic 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. Attitude-behavior relations: A theoretical analysis and review of empirical research. Psychological Bulletin, 1977, 84, 888–918.Google Scholar
  2. Allen, J. G., & Haccoun, D. M. Sex differences in emotionality: A multidimensional approach. Human Relations, 1976, 29, 711–722.Google Scholar
  3. Atkinson, J., & Endsley, R. Influence of sex of child and parent on parental reactions to hypothetical parent-child situations. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 1976, 94, 131–147.Google Scholar
  4. Bandura, A., Ross, D., & Ross, S. A. Imitation of film-mediated aggressive models. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1963, 66, 3–11.Google Scholar
  5. Bernard, J. Sex differences: An overview. In A. G. Kaplan & J. P. Bean (Eds.), Beyond sex-role stereotypes: Readings toward a psychology of androgyny. Boston: Little, Brown, 1976.Google Scholar
  6. Birnbaum, D. W., Nosanchuk, T. A., & Croll, W. L. Children's stereotypes about sex differences in emotionality. Sex Roles, 1980, 6, 435–443.Google Scholar
  7. Block, J. H. Issues, problems, and pitfalls in assessing sex differences. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 1976, 22, 283–308.Google Scholar
  8. Busby, L. J. Sex-role research on the mass media. Journal of Communication, 1975, 25, 107–131.Google Scholar
  9. Campbell, D. T. Stereotypes and the perception of group differences. American Psychologist, 1967, 22, 817–829.Google Scholar
  10. Fagot, B. I. The influence of sex of child on parental reaction to toddler children. Child Development, 1978, 49, 459–465.Google Scholar
  11. Frueh, T., & McGhee, P. E. Traditional sex-role development and amount of time spent watching television. Developmental Psychology, 1975, 11, 109.Google Scholar
  12. Hall, M., & Keith, R. A. Sex-role preferences among children of upper and lower social class. Journal of Psychology, 1964, 62, 101–110.Google Scholar
  13. Kirk, R. E. Experimental design: Procedures for the behavioral sciences. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth, 1968.Google Scholar
  14. Liebert, R. M., Neale, J. M., & Davidson, E. S. The early window: Effects of television on children and youth. New York: Pergamon Press, 1973.Google Scholar
  15. Long, M. L., & Simon, R. J. The roles and statuses of women on children and family TV programs. Journalism Quarterly, 1974, 52, 107–110.Google Scholar
  16. Maccoby, E. E., & Jacklin, C. N. The psychology of sex differences. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  17. McArthur, L. Z., & Eisen, S. V. Television and sex-role stereotyping. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 1976, 6, 329–351.Google Scholar
  18. Nunnally, J. C. Psychometric theory. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967.Google Scholar
  19. Parke, R. D. Interactional designs. In R. B. Cairns (Ed.), The analysis of social interactions: Method, issues, and illustrations. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1979.Google Scholar
  20. Parsons, T., & Bales, R. F. Family, socialization, and interaction process. Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press, 1955.Google Scholar
  21. Peterson, D. R., Becker, W. C., Hellmer, L. A., Shoemaker, D. J., & Quay, H. C. Parental attitudes and child adjustment. Child Development, 1959, 30, 119–130.Google Scholar
  22. Rabban, M. Sex role identification in young children in two diverse social groups. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 1950, 43(1), 81–158.Google Scholar
  23. Rosenkrantz, P. S., Vogel, S., Bee, H., Broverman, I., & Broverman, D. M. Sex-role stereotypes and self-concepts in college students. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1968, 32, 287–295.Google Scholar
  24. Rothbart, M. K., & Maccoby, E. E. Parents' differential reactions to sons and daughters. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1966, 4, 237–243.Google Scholar
  25. Stein, A. H. & Friedrich, L. K. Impact of television on children and youth. In E. Hetherington (Ed.), Review of child development research (Vol. 5). Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1975.Google Scholar
  26. Sternglanz, S. H., & Serbin, L. A. Sex role stereotyping in children's television programs. Developmental Psychology, 1974, 10, 710–715.Google Scholar
  27. Tiger, L. The possible biological origins of sexual discrimination. In C. F. Epstein & W. J. Goode (Eds.), The other half: Roads to women's equality. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1971.Google Scholar
  28. Williams, J. E., & Bennett, S. M. The definition of sex stereotypes via the Adjective Check List. Sex Roles, 1975, 1, 327–338.Google Scholar
  29. Wright, J. Witness disqualified, says judge. Ms., 1977, 5(9), 22.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dana W. Birnbaum
    • 1
  • William L. Croll
    • 2
  1. 1.University of MaineUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyCarleton UniversityOttawaCanada

Personalised recommendations