Opening of apical and axillary buds of mature Douglas-fir and sugar pine trees was obtained on a newly formulated basal medium (DCR) without growth regulators. Elongation of buds was observed on 1/2 strength DCR with 0.3% activated charcoal (DCR-1). In sugar pine, multiple shoots were obtained when explants on DCR with 0.5 mg/1 BAP for 5–6 weeks were transferred to DCR-1 medium. On subculture, axillary buds again developed when shoots were cultured on DCR with 0.2 mg/1 BAP for Douglas-fir and 0.5 mg/1 BAP for sugar pine. These buds were again elongated on DCR-1 medium. By subculturing 7–10 shoots of Douglas-fir and 2–3 shoots of sugar pine, over 100 shoots can be obtained in a year.
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Gupta, P.K., Durzan, D.J. Shoot multiplication from mature trees of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana). Plant Cell Reports 4, 177–179 (1985). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00269282