Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 30, Issue 2, pp 135–140 | Cite as

A one-step process for the production of single-cell protein and amyloglucosidase

  • Endang Sukara
  • Horst W. Doelle
Biotechnology

Summary

A new Rhizopus species was isolated from traditional Indonesian food, tempeh. The newly isolated species was similar in its morphological characteristics to Rhizopus oligosporus UQM 145F, but grew faster on potato-dextrose agar as well as in submerged culture. The new isolate was found to convert ground cassava tuber directly into single cell protein without pretreatment due to its high amyloglucosidase formation.

From 100 g ground tuber, a dry biomass of 33.75 g containing 26.48% true protein together with 60 ml of highly active amyloglucosidase (282 units) was obtained in 12 h. The amyloglucosidase was recovered by ultrafiltration, releasing 26.226 millimol glucose/l/min from soluble starch. The crude enzyme exhibited a pH optimum between 4.6 and 5.0, a temperature optimum between 55 and 60° C and an apparent Km of 3.125 g/l. High substrate concentrations and ammonium sulphate are inhibitory to the enzyme.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alazard D, Raimbault M (1981) Comparative study of amylolytic enzymes production by Aspergillus niger in liquid and solid-state cultivation. Eur J Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 12:113–117Google Scholar
  2. Ayres JC (1972) Manioc: The potential exists for increased use of this tropical plant and its products. Food Technol 26:128Google Scholar
  3. Brook EJ, Stanton WR, Wallbridge A (1969) Fermentation methods for protein enrichment of cassava. Biotech Bioeng 11:1271–1284Google Scholar
  4. FAO (1983) Production Year Book, Vol 37Google Scholar
  5. Fogarty WM, Benson CP (1983) Purification and properties of a thermophilic amyloglucosidase from Aspergillus niger. Eur J Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 18:271–278Google Scholar
  6. Gray WD, Abou-El-Seoud M (1966) Fungal protein for food and feeds III. Manioc as a potential crude raw material for tropical areas. Economic Botany 20:251–255Google Scholar
  7. Gregory KF, Reade AE, Khor GI, Alexander JC, lumsden JH, Losos G (1976) Conversion of carbohydrates to protein by high-temperature fungi. Food Technol 30:30–35Google Scholar
  8. Grigorov VS, Zherebtsov NA, Shchegolev VV (1983) Isolation of a thermotolerant mutant of Rhizopus pygmaeus with high glucoamylase activity. Microbiology 52:391–423Google Scholar
  9. Grigorov VS, Zherebtsov NA, Shchegolev VV (1986) Ploidy determination in Rhizopus pygmaeus mutants and their glucoamylase biosynthesis at different temperatures. Microbiology 55:330–333Google Scholar
  10. Herbert D, Phipps PJ, Strange RE (1971) Chemical analysis of microbial cells. In: Norris JR, Ribbons DW (eds) Methods in microbiology, Vol 5B, Academic Press, London, pp 209–344Google Scholar
  11. Hesseltine CW (1965) A millenium of fungi, food, and fermentation. Mycologia 57:149–197Google Scholar
  12. Kassim EA (1983) Effect of nutritional and physiological conditions on the production of alpha amylase and glucoamylase by a selected strain of Aspergillus oryzae. Microbiology 52:330–334Google Scholar
  13. Lawes G, Kenward M (1970) Technology review: Enriching cassava with microbes. New Scientist 45(684):168Google Scholar
  14. Meiring AG, Azi FA, Gregory KF (1978) Microbial protein production from whey and cassava. Trans American Society Agricultural Engineers 21:586–593Google Scholar
  15. Mitsue T, Saha BC, Ueda S (1979) Glucoamylase of Aspergillus oryzae cultured on steam rice. J Appl Biochem 1:410–422Google Scholar
  16. Moulin G, Deschamps F, Galzy P (1983) Study of SCP production from starch. In Ferranti MP, Fiechter A (eds) Production and feeding of SCP, Applied Science, Barking Essex (UK), pp 156–158Google Scholar
  17. Muller Z, Chou KC, Nah KC (1975) Cassava as a total substitute for cereals in livestock and poultry rations. In: Halliday D, Wills B, Dines BA (eds) Proceedings of the Conference on Animal Feeds of Tropical and Subtropical Origin. Tropical Product Institute, pp 85–95Google Scholar
  18. Nur E, Saono S, Hermiyati (1983) Potensi beberapa biak kapang sebagai sumber protein sel tunggal dari ketela pohon. In: Josodiwondo S, Utji R, Warsa UC (eds) Kumpulan Makalah Kongres Nasional Mikrobiologi III. Perhimpunan Mikrobiologi Indonesia Jakarta, pp 467–469Google Scholar
  19. Ramos-Valdivia A, dela-Torre AM, Cassas-Campillo C (1983) Solid state fermentation of cassava with Rhizopus oligosporus NRRL 2710. In: Ferranti MP, Fiechter A (eds) Production and feeding of single cell protein, Applied Science, Barking, Essex (UK), pp 104–111Google Scholar
  20. Reade AE, Gregory KF (1975) High temperature production of protein-enriched feed from cassava by fungi. Appl Microbiol 30:897–904Google Scholar
  21. Rubico SM, Sanchez PC, Escueta EE (1984) Fungal protein production — using cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) flour as substrate. I. Isolation, screening and identification. Philippine Agriculturist 67:201–208Google Scholar
  22. Saha BC, Ueda S (1983) Raw starch adsorption, elution and digestion behaviour of Rhizopus niveus. J Ferm Tech 61:67–72Google Scholar
  23. Santos J, Gomez G, Alexander JC (1983) Production of fungal protein from rasped fresh cassava roots using 200 and 3000 litre fermentors. Anim Feed Science Technol 8:313–324Google Scholar
  24. Smith RE, Osothsilp C, Bicho P, Gregory KF (1986) Improvement in the protein content of cassava by Sporotrichum pulverulenium in solid state culture. Biotech Lettrs 8:31–36Google Scholar
  25. Sukara E, Doelle HW (1986) Utilization of cassava starch for the production of single cell protein (SCP). VIIth Austral Biotech Conf Melbourne, Australia, pp 356–360Google Scholar
  26. Sukatsch DA, Praeve P, Faust UD (1983) Upgrading of agricultural carbohydrate source into microbial protein — SCP preparation by Candida and fungus species fermentation of cassava. Conference paper for Intern Symp SCP:193–201Google Scholar
  27. Tan KH, Ferguson LB, Carlton C (1984) Conversion of casava starch to biomass, carbohydrates, and acids by Aspergillus niger. J Appl Biochem 6:80–90Google Scholar
  28. Wang HL, Swain EW, Hesseltine CW (1975) Mass production of Rhizopus oligosporus spores and their application in tempeh fermentation. J Food Sciences 40:168–170Google Scholar
  29. Worgan JT (1973) Protein production by microorganisms from carbohydrate substrates. In: The biological efficiency of protein production (Jones JCW, ed), Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge, pp 339–361Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Endang Sukara
    • 1
  • Horst W. Doelle
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Microbiology, MIRCEN-BiotechnologyUniversity of QueenslandSt. Lucia-BrisbaneAustralia
  2. 2.Pusat Penelitian den Pengembangan BioteknologiLembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia (LIPI)BogorIndonesia

Personalised recommendations