The influence of various carbon sources and their concentration on the production of citrate by Aspergillus niger has been investigated. The sugars maltose, sucrose, glucose, mannose and fructose (in the given order) were carbon sources giving high yields of citric acid. Optimal yields were observed at sugar concentrations of 10% (w/v), with the exception of glucose (7.5%). No citric acid was produced on media containing less than 2.5% sugar. Precultivation of A. niger on 1% sucrose and transference to a 14% concentration of various other sugars induced citrate accumulation. This could be blocked by the addition of cycloheximide, an inhibitor of de novo protein synthesis. This induction was achieved using maltose, sucrose, glucose, mannose and fructose, and also by some other carbon sources (e.g. glycerol) that gave no citric acid accumulation in direct fermentation. Precultivation of A. niger at high (14%) sucrose concentrations and subsequent transfer to the same concentrations of various other carbohydrates, normally not leading to citric acid production, led to formation of citrate. Endogenous carbon sources were also converted to citrate under these conditions. A 14%-sucrose precultivated mycelium continued producing some citrate upon transfer to 1% sugar. These results indicate that high concentrations of certain carbon sources are required for high citrate yields, because they induce the appropriate metabolic imbalance required for acidogenesis.
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Xu, D., Madrid, C.P., Röhr, M. et al. The influence of type and concentration of the carbon source on production of citric acid by Aspergillus niger . Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 30, 553–558 (1989). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00255358
- Carbon Source
- Citric Acid