Head injuries in infants and young children: the value of the Paediatric Coma Scale

Review of literature and report on a study

Abstract

The normal verbal and motor responses embodied in the standard Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) are not achievable during the first few years of life. The recent literature contains numerous reports of attempts to devise scales of responses quantitating the conscious level in infants and young children, both for research purposes and as clinical guides; some of these scales incorporate items, e.g. brainstem reflexes, that are not included in the GCS. We have reported on a simple paediatric version of the GCS, which uses the standard scale with minor modifications in the verbal component, and sets realistic age-related normal responses. This has been tested prospectively in a series of 60 head-injured infants and children (age range 0–72 months). Of 6 cases recorded as comatose 6 h after injury, 4 have confirmed or suspected residual disabilities. Of 35 cases considered to be fully conscious at 6 h, 31 have made good recoveries and only 1 has suspected residual disabilities. The study suggests that the scale accords with the realities of neurological immaturity, and confirms that it can be used in routine paediatric practice. For comparative therapeutic trials, the conscious level in infants has limited value as an index of brain injury, and should be complemented by other indices, such as brainstem reflexes.

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Correspondence to D. A. Simpson.

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Simpson, D.A., Cockington, R.A., Hanieh, A. et al. Head injuries in infants and young children: the value of the Paediatric Coma Scale. Child's Nerv Syst 7, 183–190 (1991). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00249393

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Key words

  • Paediatric head injuries
  • Coma scale