Polar Biology

, Volume 12, Issue 3–4, pp 417–427 | Cite as

Ecology of sea ice biota

1. Habitat, terminology, and methodology
  • Rita Horner
  • Stephen F. Ackley
  • Gerhard S. Dieckmann
  • Bjorn Gulliksen
  • Takao Hoshiai
  • Louis Legendre
  • Igor A. Melnikov
  • William S. Reeburgh
  • Michael Spindler
  • Cornelius W. Sullivan


Polar regions are covered by extensive sea ice that is inhabited by a variety of plants and animals. The environments where the organisms live vary depending on the structure and age of the ice. Many terms have been used to describe the habitats and the organisms. We here characterize the habitats and communities and suggest some standard terms for them. We also suggest routine sampling methods and reporting units for measurements of biological and chemical variables.


Sampling Method Polar Region Chemical Variable Standard Term Routine Sampling 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH & Co. KG 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rita Horner
    • 1
  • Stephen F. Ackley
    • 2
  • Gerhard S. Dieckmann
    • 3
  • Bjorn Gulliksen
    • 4
  • Takao Hoshiai
    • 5
  • Louis Legendre
    • 6
  • Igor A. Melnikov
    • 7
  • William S. Reeburgh
    • 8
  • Michael Spindler
    • 9
  • Cornelius W. Sullivan
    • 10
  1. 1.School of Oceanography, WB-10University of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  2. 2.U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering LaboratoryHanoverUSA
  3. 3.Alfred-Wegener-Institut für Polar- und MeeresforschungBremerhavenFederal Republic of Germany
  4. 4.University of Tromso (NFH)TromsoNorway
  5. 5.National Institute of Polar ResearchTokyoJapan
  6. 6.Departement de BiologieUniversite LavalQuebecCanada
  7. 7.Institute of OceanologyUSSR Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia
  8. 8.Institute of Marine ScienceUniversity of AlaskaFairbanksUSA
  9. 9.Institut für Polarökologie der Universität KielKiel 1Federal Republic of Germany
  10. 10.Department of Biological SciencesUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

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