Advertisement

Polar Biology

, Volume 11, Issue 1, pp 55–62 | Cite as

Algal pigment patterns in different watermasses of the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean during fall 1987

  • A. G. J. Buma
  • P. Treguer
  • G. W. Kraay
  • J. Morvan
Article

Summary

During the autumn of 1987 a survey was carried out in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean in order to study phytoplankton community structure in relation to hydrological features. The positions of the boundary zones, determined by means of hydrological and chemical properties (especially silicic acid) match with previous studies. The phytoplankton community structure was studied by means of algal pigment fingerprints. A cluster analysis of the main phytoplankton pigments revealed the presence of four distinctive phytoplankton communities in the area. In three cluster groups phytoflagellate pigments of different taxonomical groups were found which showed different relative abundance between the cluster groups. In between the Polar Front Zone and the Weddell Scotia Confluence a fourth group was found which was rich in diatoms as compared to the other cluster groups. High concentrations of the fucoxanthin related 19′-hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin indicated the relative importance of Prymnesiophyceae during fall in this area. The relative contribution of each taxonomical group to total phytoplankton biomass was estimated by using specific pigment ratios. This calculation showed that in this time of the year phytoflagellate biomass (especially Prymnesiophytes) surpasses diatom biomass.

Keywords

Phytoplankton Southern Ocean Silicic Acid Cluster Group Fucoxanthin 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Arpin N, Svec WA, Liaaen-Jensen S (1976) New fucoxanthin-related carotenoids from Coccolithus huxleyi. Phytochemistry 15: 529–532Google Scholar
  2. Bennekom AJ, von Berger GW, Gaast SJ, van der Vries RTP de (1988) Primary productivity and the silica cycle in the Southern Ocean (Atlantic Sector). Palaeogeogr Palaeoclim Palaeoecol 67:19–30Google Scholar
  3. Bidigare RR, Frank TJ, Zastrow C, Brooks JM (1986) The distribution of algal chlorophylls and their degradation products in the Southern Ocean. Deep-Sea Res 33:923–937Google Scholar
  4. Bidigare RR, Marra J, Dickey TD, Iturriaga R, Baker KS, Smith RC, Pak H (1990) Evidence for phytoplankton succession and chromatic adaptation in the Sargasso Sea during spring 1985. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 60:113–122Google Scholar
  5. Bjørnland T, Guillard RRL, Liaaen-Jensen S (1988) Phaeocystis sp. clone 677–3-Atropical marine planctonic Prymnesiophyte with fucoxanthin and 19′-acyloxyfucoxanthins as chemosystematic carotenoid markers. Biochem Syst Ecol 16:445–452Google Scholar
  6. Bodungen B, von Smetacek VS, Tilzer MM, Zeitschel B (1986) Primary production and sedimentation during spring in the Antarctic Peninsula region. Deep-Sea Res 33:177–194Google Scholar
  7. Broeckel K von (1981) The importance of nanoplankton within the pelagic ecosystem. Kieler Meeresforsch 5:61–67Google Scholar
  8. Buck KR, Garrison DL (1983) Protists from the ice-edge region of the Weddell Sea. Deep-Sea Res 30:1261–1277Google Scholar
  9. Buma AGJ, Bano N, Veldhuis MJW. Comparison of the pigmentation of two ecotypes of Phaeocyslis of pouchetu during growth in batch cultures (in press)Google Scholar
  10. Burkholder PR, Sieburth JM (1961) Phytoplankton and chlorophyll in the Gerlache and Bransfield Straits of Antarctica. Limnol Oceanogr 6:45–52Google Scholar
  11. Campbell L, Carpenter EJ, Ianoco J (1983) Identification and enumeration of marine chroococcoid Cyanobacteria by immunofluorescence. Appl Environ Microbiol 46:553–559Google Scholar
  12. Carreto JI, Catoggio JA (1976) Variations in pigment contents of the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum during growth. Mar Biol 36:105–112Google Scholar
  13. Cederløf UEB, Bennekom AJ, von Veth C (submitted) On the exchange of water masses across the Weddell Scotia Confluence area.Google Scholar
  14. Coats DW, Harding LW Jr (1988) Effect of light history on the ultrastructure and physiology of Prorocentrum mariae-lebouriae. J Phycol 24:67–77Google Scholar
  15. Davis JC (1973) Statistics and data analysis is geology. Wiley and Sons, NYGoogle Scholar
  16. El-Sayed SZ (1988) Seasonal and interannual variabilities in Antarctic phytoplankton with reference to krill distribution. In: Sahrhage D (ed) Springer, Antarctic Ocean and resources variability. Berlin Heidelberg, pp 101–119Google Scholar
  17. El-Sayed SZ, Biggs DC, Holm-Hansen O (1983) Phytoplankton standing crop, primary production and near-surface nitrigenous nutrient fields in the Ross Sea, Antarctica. Deep-Sea Res 30:871–886Google Scholar
  18. Fawley MW (1989) Detection of chlorophyll c 1, c 2 and c 3 in pigment extracts of Prymnesium parvum (Prymnesiophyceae). J Phycol 25:601–604Google Scholar
  19. Foster TD (1984) The marine environment. In: Laws RM (ed) Antarctic ecology. Br Antarct Survey, Acad Press 2:357–370Google Scholar
  20. Gallagher JC, Alberte RS (1985) Photosynthetic and cellular photoadaptive characteristics of three ecotypes of the marine diatom Sceletonema costatum (Grev.) Cleve. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 94:233–250Google Scholar
  21. Garrison DL, Buck KR (1985) Sea-ice communities in the Weddell Sea:Species composition in ice and plankton assemblages. In: Gray JS, Christiansen ME (eds) Marine biology of polar regions and effects of stress on marine organisms. Wiley and Sons, pp 103–122Google Scholar
  22. Garrison DL, Buck KR, Fryxell GA (1987) Algal assemblages in Antarctic pack ice and in ice-edge plankton. J Phycol 23:564–572Google Scholar
  23. Gieskes WWC, Elbraechter M (1986) Abundance of nanoplankton-size chlorophyll-containing particles caused by diatom disruption in surface waters of the Southern Ocean (Antarctic Peninsula region). Neth J Sea Res 20:291–303Google Scholar
  24. Gieskes WWC, Kraay GW (1983) Dominance of Cryptophyceae during the phytoplankton spring bloom in the central North Sea detected by HPLC analysis of pigments. Mar Biol 75:179–185Google Scholar
  25. Gieskes WWC, Kraay GW (1986a) Analysis of phytoplankton pigments by HPLC before, during and after mass occurrence of the microflagellate Corymbellus aureus during the spring bloom in the open North Sea. Mar Biol 92:45–52Google Scholar
  26. Gieskes WWC, Kraay GW (1986b) Floristic and physiological differences between the shallow and the deep nanoplankton community in the euphotic zone of the open tropical Atlantic revealed by HPLC analysis of pigments. Mar Biol 91:567–576Google Scholar
  27. Gieskes WWC, Kraay GW, Nontji, A, Setiapermana D, Sutomo (1988) Monsoonal alteration of a mixed and a layered structure in te phytoplankton of the euphotic zone of the Banda Sea (Indonesia): A mathematical analysis of algal pigment fingerprints. Neth J Sea Res 22:123–137Google Scholar
  28. Gordon AL (1967) Structure of Antarctic waters between 20°W and 170°W. Antarct Map Folio Ser, Folio 6, Am Geogr Soc, 10 ppGoogle Scholar
  29. Gordon AL (1988) Spatial and temporal variability within the Southern Ocean. In: Sahrhage D (ed) Antarctic oceans and resources variability. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg pp 41–56Google Scholar
  30. Guillard RRL, Kilham P (1977) The ecology of marine planctonic diatoms. In: The biology of diatoms. Werner D (ed) Univ Calif Press, pp 372–469Google Scholar
  31. Hart (1942) Phytoplankton periodicity in Antarctic surface waters. Discovery Rep 21:261–365Google Scholar
  32. Haxo FT (1985) Photosynthetic action spectrum of the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyceae): 19′-hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin as antenna pigment. J Phycol 21:282–287Google Scholar
  33. Hayes PF, Whitaker TM, Fogg GE (1984) The distribution and nutrient status of phytoplankton in the Southern Ocean between 20° and 70°W. Polar Biol 3:153–165Google Scholar
  34. Hertzberg S, Mortensen T, Birch G, Siegelman HW, Liaaen-Jensen S (1977) On the absolute configuration of 19′-hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin. Phytochemistry 16:587–590Google Scholar
  35. Hewes CD, Holm-Hansen O, Sakshaug E (1985) Alternate carbon pathways at low trophic levels in the Antarctic food web. In: Siegfried WR (ed) Antarctic nutrient cycles and food webs. pp. 277–283Google Scholar
  36. eywood RB, Whitaker TM (1984) The Antarctic marine flora. In: Laws RM (ed) Antarctic ecology Br Antarct Survey, Acad Press 2:373–419Google Scholar
  37. Hooks CE, Bidigare RR, Keller MD, Guillard RRL (1988) Coccoid eukaryotic marine ultraplankters with four different HPLC pigment signatures. J Phycol 24:571–580Google Scholar
  38. Jacques G (1989) Primary production in the open Antarctic ocean during the austral summer. A review. Vie Milieu 39:1–17Google Scholar
  39. Jeffrey SW (1974) Profiles of photosynthetic pigments in the ocean using thin-layer chromatography. Mar Biol 26:101–110Google Scholar
  40. Jeffrey SW (1976) A report of green algal pigments in the central North Pacific Ocean. Mar Biol 37:33–37Google Scholar
  41. Jeffrey SW, Sielicki M, Haxo FT (1975) Chloroplast pigment patterns in dinoflagellates. J Phycol 11:374–384Google Scholar
  42. Jeffrey SW, Wright (1987) A new spectrally distinct component in preparations of chlorophyll c from the microalgae Emiliania huxleyi (Prymnesiophyceae). Biochim Biophys Acta 894:180–188Google Scholar
  43. Kana TM, Glibert PM, Goericke R, Welschmeyer NA (1988) Zeaxanthin and b-carotene in Synechococcus WH7803 respond differently to irradiance. Limnol Oceanogr 33:1623–1627Google Scholar
  44. Klein B (1988) Variations in pigment content in two benthic diatoms during growth in batch cultures. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 115: 237–248Google Scholar
  45. Marchant HJ, Buck KR, Garrison DL, Thomsen HA (1989) Mantoniella in Antarctic waters including the discription of M. antarctica sp. nov. (Prasinophyceae). J Phycol 25:167–174Google Scholar
  46. Michel RL (1984) Oceanographic structure of the eastern Scotia Sea II. Chemical oceanography. Deep-Sea Res 31:1157–1168Google Scholar
  47. Neveux J (1976) Dosage de la chlorophyll-a et de la phaeophytine par fluorometrie. Anal Inst Oceanogr 52:165–174Google Scholar
  48. Patterson SL, Sievers HA (1980) The Weddell Scotia confluence. J Phys Oceanogr 10:1584–1610Google Scholar
  49. Priddle J, Heywood RB, Theriot E (1986) Some environmental factors influencing phytoplankton in the Southern Ocean around South Georgia. Polar Biol 5:65–79Google Scholar
  50. Riley JP, Wilson TRS (1967) The pigments of some marine phytoplankton species. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 47:351–362Google Scholar
  51. Shapiro LP, Haugen EM, Keller MD, Bidigare RR, Campbell L, Guillard RRL (1989) Taxonomic affinities of marine coccoid ultraphytoplankton: a comparison of immunochemical surface antigen cross-reactions and HPLC chloroplast pigment signatures. J Phycol 25:794–797Google Scholar
  52. Sieburth JM (1959) Antibacterial activity of Antarctic marine phytoplankton. Limnol Oceanogr 4:419–424Google Scholar
  53. Sievers HA, Nowlin WD Jr (1988) Upper ocean characteristics in Drake passage and adjoining areas of the Southern Ocean, 39°W–95°W. In: Sahrhage D (ed) Antarctic Ocean and resources variability. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, pp 57–80Google Scholar
  54. Smetacek V, Veth C (1989) Summary review of EPOS leg 2. Ber Polarforsch, Rep Polar Res 65:2–9Google Scholar
  55. Thomsen HA, Buck KR, Coale SL, Garrison DL, Gowing MM (1988) Nanoplanktonic coccolithophorids (Prymnesiophyceae, Haptophyceae) from the Weddell Sea, Antarctica. Nord J Bot 8:419–436Google Scholar
  56. Treguer P, Le Corre P (1975) Manuel d'analyses des selds nutritifs dans l'eau de mer. Utilisation d'autoanalyzer II. Document UBO, Brest, 110 ppGoogle Scholar
  57. Veldhuis MJW, Kraay GW (1990) Vertical distribution and pigment composition of a picoplanctonic prochlorophyte in the subtropical North Atlantic: a combined study of HPLC-analysis of pigments and flow cytometry. Mor Ecol Progr Ser (in press)Google Scholar
  58. Vesk M, Jeffrey SW (1987) Ulreastructure and pigments of two strains of the picoplanktonic alga Pelagococcus subviridis (Chrysophyceae). J Phycol 23:322–336Google Scholar
  59. Withers NW, Fiksdahl A, Tuttle RC, Liaaen-Jensen S (1981) Carotenoids of the Chrysophyceae. Comp Biochem Physiol 68B:345Google Scholar
  60. Wright SW, Jeffrey SW (1987) Fucoxanthin pigment markers of marine phytoplankton analysed by HPLC and HPTLC. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 38:259–266Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. G. J. Buma
    • 1
  • P. Treguer
    • 2
  • G. W. Kraay
    • 1
  • J. Morvan
    • 3
  1. 1.Netherlands Institute for Sea ResearchAB Den Burg TexelThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Institut d'Etudes MarinesBrest CedexFrance
  3. 3.Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de RennesRennesFrance

Personalised recommendations