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Protoplasts from cotyledon and hypocotyl of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.): shoot regeneration and seed production


Cotyledon and hypocotyl protoplasts of Helianthus annuus inbred line 47 302 bcd were embedded in alginate and plated on L4 medium (Lenée and Chupeau 1986). After one month, the calli were transferred on MSSH regeneration medium (Murashige and Skoog 1962; Schenk and Hildebrandt 1972) where they regenerated shoots (overall efficiency 10−2%). The shoots were elongated on B5 (Gamborg et al. 1968) medium first without hormones, then supplemented with GA3 and BAP (both 0.05 mg/l). In order to overcome the difficulty to induce rooting by classical methods, the elongated shoots were grafted on a sunflower rootstock. The grafted shoots produced flowers and seeds. Different factors have been shown to have an important influence on the capacity to regenerate shoots: the genotype, the physical culture conditions at the callus regeneration step (e.g. protoplasts embedded in alginate), and the media composition.

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gibberellic acid


indole-3-butanoic acid


indole acetic acid


2-N-morpholinoethane sulfonic acid


1-naphthalene acetic acid


2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid


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Communicated by H. Lörz

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Fischer, C., Klethi, P. & Hahne, G. Protoplasts from cotyledon and hypocotyl of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.): shoot regeneration and seed production. Plant Cell Reports 11, 632–636 (1992).

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Key words

  • Helianthus annuus
  • Protoplasts
  • Plant regeneration