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Isolation of protoplasts from developing barley endosperm: a tool for transient expression studies


We have developed a method for the routine isolation of protoplasts from developing starchy endosperm of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Preplasmolysis of the intact endosperms, a low concentration of hydrolytic enzymes and gravity sedimentation before any centrifugation step, were crucial factors for a good preparation. Best yields were obtained early after pollination (8–13 days) or with mutants with low starch content. Transient expression of a reporter gene under the control of the 35S promoter, after polyethyleneglycol transfection of endosperm protoplasts, was of the same order as that found in coleoptile derived protoplasts. No significant difference in expression was found for a given tissue between cv. Bomi and its mutant Risø 1508.

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2, 4D:

2, 4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid


days after pollination


Murashige and Skoog medium










5-bromo-4 chloro-3 indolyl glucuronide


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Communicated by I. Potrykus

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Diaz, I., Carbonero, P. Isolation of protoplasts from developing barley endosperm: a tool for transient expression studies. Plant Cell Reports 10, 595–598 (1992).

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  • Starch
  • Reporter Gene
  • Hydrolytic Enzyme
  • Expression Study
  • Polyethyleneglycol