On the basis of recent data for the roughness Reynolds number of the sea surface, and using the Owen-Thomson theory on the transfers of heat and mass between a rough surface and the flow above it, the bulk transfer coefficients of the sea surface have been estimated. For a reference height of 10 m, the neutral-lapse transfer coefficient for water vapor is larger by only a few percent than that for sensible heat. When the wind speed at the 10-m height is u 10>3 m s−1, the coefficient for sensible heat C H is larger by about 10% than that for momentum C D . For u 10<5 m s−1, however, the value of C D exceeds the value of C H , and for u 10=15 m s−1 it is shown that C H ≈0.8C D . It may be also proposed that 103 C D =1.11 to 1.70, 103 C E =1.18 to 1.30, and 103 C H =1.15 to 1.26 for a range of u 10=4 to 20 m s−1. A plot of diabatic transfer coefficients versus wind speed is obtained by using a parameter of the sea-air temperature difference. For practical purposes, the coefficients are approximated by empirical formulae.
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Kondo, J. Air-sea bulk transfer coefficients in diabatic conditions. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 9, 91–112 (1975). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00232256
- Rough Surface
- Wind Speed
- Reynolds Number
- Water Vapor
- Transfer Coefficient