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Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

, Volume 59, Issue 1–2, pp 81–99 | Cite as

Nuclear protein kinases

  • Harry R. Matthews
  • Verena D. Huebner
Review

Summary

Nuclear protein kinases include enzymes that transfer the γ-phosphate of ATP to serine, threonine, lysine or histidine in proteins. Nuclear kinases with a preference for basic proteins are known as histone kinases; those preferring acidic protein substrates are casein kinases. Histone kinases include both cyclic AMP-independent protein kinases and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases. The best-characterized cyclic AMP-independent nuclear protein kinase is associated with cell proliferation and is activated (or transported to the nucleus) in G2 phase of the cell cycle. It phosphorylates specific serine and threonine residues in the non globular domains of histone H1 and appears to promote chromosome condensation. The cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase has unknown nuclear function(s), although it may be translocated from cytoplasm to nucleus in response to specific hormonal stimuli which are also associated with changes in transcriptional activity. There is a massive peak of nuclear cyclic AM P-dependent protein kinase activity in G2 phase of the cell cycle. Nuclear casein kinases are apparently very heterogeneous. Two of these enzymes have been purified to homogeneity. They phosphorylate non-histone chromosomal proteins, including RNA polymerase and ornithine decarboxylase. Phosphorylated ornithine decarboxylase is inactive enzymatically but, in Physarum, it binds to the rDNA minichromosome and stimulates rRNA transcription. Kinases forming phosphoramidate bonds occur in a variety of rat tissues and form phosphohistide in historic H4 and phospholysine in histone H1.

Keywords

Casein Kinase Ornithine Decarboxylase Chromosome Condensation Globular Domain Chromosomal Protein 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Martinus Nijhoff Publishers 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Harry R. Matthews
    • 1
  • Verena D. Huebner
    • 1
  1. 1.Departmentof Biological Chemistry, School of MedicineUniversity of CaliforniaDavisU.S.A.

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