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Using molecular markers to map multiple quantitative trait loci: models for backcross, recombinant inbred, and doubled haploid progeny

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To maximize parameter estimation efficiency and statistical power and to estimate epistasis, the parameters of multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs) must be simultaneously estimated. If multiple QTL affect a trait, then estimates of means of QTL genotypes from individual locus models are statistically biased. In this paper, I describe methods for estimating means of QTL genotypes and recombination frequencies between marker and quantitative trait loci using multilocus backcross, doubled haploid, recombinant inbred, and testcross progeny models. Expected values of marker genotype means were defined using no double or multiple crossover frequencies and flanking markers for linked and unlinked quantitative trait loci. The expected values for a particular model comprise a system of nonlinear equations that can be solved using an interative algorithm, e.g., the Gauss-Newton algorithm. The solutions are maximum likelihood estimates when the errors are normally distributed. A linear model for estimating the parameters of unlinked quantitative trait loci was found by transforming the nonlinear model. Recombination frequency estimators were defined using this linear model. Certain means of linked QTLs are less efficiently estimated than means of unlinked QTLs.

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Communicated by A. R. Hallauer

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Knapp, S.J. Using molecular markers to map multiple quantitative trait loci: models for backcross, recombinant inbred, and doubled haploid progeny. Theoret. Appl. Genetics 81, 333–338 (1991).

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