Skip to main content

Biotechnology in the pulp and paper industry

Summary

Biotechnology implies the technical exploitation of biological processes. One of nature's most important biological processes is the degradation of wood and other lignocellulosic materials to carbon dioxide, water, and humic substances. Consequently, there should be possibilities to apply biotechnology to wood conversion. This article summarizes briefly the knowledge relating to the enzymic degradation of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin. However, it is mainly focused upon biotechnological processes in commercial use or in various stages of development for the pulp and paper industry. Areas covered are ethanol and protein production, water purification, development of new bleaching techniques, microbial delignification (biopulping), and development of “biosensors” for analysis of pulp fiber surfaces.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  • Abuja, P.; Pilz, I.; Claeyssens, M.; Tomme, P. 1988: Domain structure of cellobiohydrolase II as studied by small angle X-ray scattering: Close resemblance to cellobiohydroiase I. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 156: 180–185

    Google Scholar 

  • Ander, P.; Eriksson, K.-E. 1975: Influence of carbohydrates on lignin degradation by the white-rot fungus Sporotrichum pulverulentum. Svensk Papperstidn. 78: 643–652

    Google Scholar 

  • Ander, P.; Eriksson, K.-E. 1978: Lignin degradation and utilization by microorganisms. Progress in Industr. Microbiol. Vol. 14: 1–58. Ed. M. J. Bull. Elsevier, Amsterdam

    Google Scholar 

  • Biely, P. 1985: Microbial xylanolytic systems. Trends Biotechnol. 3: 286–290

    Google Scholar 

  • Boman, B.; Frostell, B.; Ek, M.; Eriksson, K. E. 1988: Some aspects on biological treatment of bleaching pulp effluents. Nordic Pulp and Paper Res. J. 3: 13–18

    Google Scholar 

  • Boutelje, J. B.; Eriksson, 1. 1982: An UV-microscopy study of lignin in middle lamella fragments from fibers of mechanical pulp of spruce. Svensk Papperstidn. 85: R 39–42

    Google Scholar 

  • Boutelje, J.; Eriksson, K.-E.; Hollmark, B. H. 1971: Specific enzyme hydrolysis of the xylan in a spruce holocellulose. Svensk Papperstidn. 74: 32–37

    Google Scholar 

  • Buswell, J. A.; Hamp, S.; Eriksson, K.-E. 1979: Intracellular quinone reduction in Sporotrichum pulverulentum by a NAD (P) H: Quinone oxidoreductase: Possible role in vanillic acid catabolism. Febs Lett. 108: 229–232

    Google Scholar 

  • Chang, H-m.; Sinkey, J. D.; Yan, J. F. 1979: Chemical analysis of refiner pulps. Tappi 63: 9, 103–106

    Google Scholar 

  • Chang, H.-m.; Joyce, T. W.; Matsumoto, Y.; Yin, C.; Vasudevan, B.; Boechat, C.-A. 1986: Decolorization and dechlorination of bleach plant effluents by a white-rot fungus. Proc. 3rd Inter. Conf. Biotechnol. in the Pulp and Paper Ind., Stockholm, 120–123

  • Claeyssens, M. 1988: The use of chromophoric substrates and specific assays in the study of structure — activity relationships of cellulolytic enzymes. FEMS Symp. No. 43. Biochemistry and Genetics of Cellulose Degradation (J.-P. Aubert, P. Beguin and J. Millet, Eds.). Academic Press, London, 393–397

    Google Scholar 

  • Couglan, M. P.; Ljungdahl, L. G. 1988: Comparative biochemistry of fungal and bacterial cellulolytic enzyme systems. In: Aubert, J.-P., Beguin, P., Millet, J. (eds.), Biochemistry and genetics of cellulose degradation, FEMS symp. no. 43. Academic Press, London, 11–30

    Google Scholar 

  • Crawford, R. L. 1981: Lignin biodegradation and transformation. New York: John Wiley & Sons

    Google Scholar 

  • Cui, F.; Dolphin, D.; Wijesekera, T.; Farrell, R.; Skerker, P. 1989: Biomimetic studies of lignin degradation and bleaching. In Biotechnology in Pulp and Paper Manufacture. Butterworths, Stoneham, MA. In press

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Dekker, R. F. H. 1985: Biodegradation of the hemicelluloses. In: Higuchi, T. (Ed), Biosynthesis and biodegradation of wood components. Tokyo: Academic Press

    Google Scholar 

  • Dordick, J. S.; Marietta, N. A.; Klibanov, A. M. 1986: Peroxidases depolymerize lignin in organic media but not in water. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 83

  • Douek, M.; Heitner, C.; Lamandé, L.; Goring, D. A. I. 1976: The measurement of visible absorption of morphological elements in wood. Trans. Tech. Sect. Can. Pulp Pap. Assoc. 2: 3, 78–82

    Google Scholar 

  • Ek, M. 1989: Reduction of AOX in bleach plant effluents by ultrafiltration and biological methods. In Biotechnology in Pulp and Paper Manufacture. Butterworths, Stoneham, MA. In press

    Google Scholar 

  • Ek, M.; Eriksson, K.-E. 1980: Utilization of the white-rot fungus Sporotrichum pulverulentum for water purification and protein production on mixed lignocellulosic waste waters. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 22: 2273–2284

    Google Scholar 

  • Ek, M.; Eriksson, K.-E. 1987: External treatment of bleach plant effluent. 4th Int. Symp. on Wood and Pulping Chemistry, Paris

  • Eriksson, K.E. 1985: Swedish developments in biotechnology related to the pulp and paper industry, Tappi 68: 46–55

    Google Scholar 

  • Eriksson, K.-E. 1987: Microbial delignification — basics, potentials and applications. Proceedings FEMS Symposium, Biochemistry and Genetics of Cellulose Degradation, 285–302. Paris, September 1987. London: Academic Press

    Google Scholar 

  • Eriksson, K.-E.; Kolar, M. C. 1985: Microbial degradation of chlorolignins. Environ. Sci. Technol. 19: 1086–1089

    Google Scholar 

  • Eriksson, K.-E.; Blanchette, R. A.; Ander, P. 1989: Microbial and enzymatic degradation of wood and wood components. Heidelberg: Springer, In press

    Google Scholar 

  • Eriksson, K.-E.; Wood, T. 1985: Biodegradation of cellulose. In Higuchi, T (Ed): Biosynthesis and biodegradation of wood components. London: Academic Press

    Google Scholar 

  • Eriksson, K.-E.; Kolar, M. C. 1985: Microbial degradation of chlorolignins. Environ. Sci. Technol. 19: 1086–1089

    Google Scholar 

  • Eriksson, K.-E.; Blanchette, R. A.; Ander, P. 1989: Microbial and enzymatic degradation of wood and wood components. Heidelberg: Springer, In press

  • Eriksson, K.-E.; Wood, T. 1985: Biodegradation of cellulose. InHiguchi, T (Ed): Biosynthesis and biodegradation of wood components. London: Academic Press

    Google Scholar 

  • Eriksson, K.-E.; Kolar, M. C.; Ljungquist, P.; Kringstad, K. P. 1985: Studies on microbial and chemical conversion of chlorolignins. Environ. Sci. Technol. 19: 1219–1224

    Google Scholar 

  • Farrell, R. L. 1986: Kraft pulp bleaching with ligninolytic enzymes. In Biotechnology in the Pulp and Paper Industry, Stockholm, pp. 61–63

  • Forgacs, G. L. 1963: The characterization of mechanic pulps. Pulp and Paper Mag. Can. 84: T 89–118

    Google Scholar 

  • Forss, K. G.; Gadd, G. O.; Lundell, R. O.; Williamson, H. W: Process for manufacture of protein containing substances for fodder, foodstuff and technical application. U.S. Patent 3.809.614, patented May 7, 1974

  • Franzén, R. 1986: General and selective upgrading of mechanical pulps. Nordic Pulp Paper Res. J. 1:3, 4–13

    Google Scholar 

  • Garceau, J. J.; Lavallee, H. C.; Law, K. W. 1975: Beyond “L” and “S”. Pulp Paper Mag. Can. 76: 45–51

    Google Scholar 

  • Glenn, J. K.; Gold, M. H. 1983: Decolorization of several polymeric dyes by the lignin-degrading basidiomycetc Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 45: 1741–1747

    Google Scholar 

  • Hiroi, T.; Eriksson, K.-E. 1976: Microbial degradation of lignin. Part 1. Influence of cellulose of the degratation of lignins by the white-rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus. Svensk Papperstidn. 79: 157–161

    Google Scholar 

  • Johnsrud, S. C.; Eriksson, K.-E. 1985: Cross-breeding of selected and mutated homokaryotic strains of Phanerochaete chrysosporium K-3: New cellulase deficient strains with increased ability to degrade lignin. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 21: 320–327

    Google Scholar 

  • Johnsrud, S. C.; Fcrnandez, N.; Lopez, P.; Gutierrez, I.; Saez, A.; Eriksson, K.-E. 1987, August: Properties of fungal pretreated high yield bagasse pulps. Nordic Pulp Pap. Res. J. Special Issue Börje Steenberg 75, p. 47–52

  • Kirk, T. K.; Shimada, M. 1985: Lignin biodegradation: The microorganisms involved and the physiology and biochemistry of degradation by white rot fungi. In Higuchi (ed.) Biosynthesis and biodegradation of wood components, 579–605. New York: Academic Press

    Google Scholar 

  • Knowles, X; Teeri, T; Lehtovaara, P.; Pentila, M.; Saloheimo, M. 1988: The use of gene technology to investigate fungal cellulolytic enzymes. FEMS Symposium No. 43. Biochemistry and Genetics of Cellulose Degradation (Aubert, J.-P., Beguin, P. and Millet, J.; Eds.), 153–169. London: Academic Press

    Google Scholar 

  • Lamed, R.; Bayer, E. A. 1988: The cellulosome concept: Exocellular/extracellular enzyme reactor centers for efficient binding and cellulolysis. In: Aubert, J.-P., Beguin, P., Millet, G. (eds.), Biochemistry and genetics of cellulose degradation, FEMS symp. no. 43. Academic Press, London, 101–116

    Google Scholar 

  • Lamed, R.; Setter, E.; Kenig, R.; Bayer, E. A. 1983: The cellulosome — A discrete cell surface organelle of Clostridium thermocellum which exhibits separate antigenic, cellulose binding and various cellulolytic activities. Biotechnol. Bioeng. Symp. 13: 163–181

    Google Scholar 

  • Leatham, G. F.; Myers, G. C.; Wegner, T. H.; Blanchette, R. A. 1989: Energy savings in biomechanical pulping. In Biotechnology in Pulp and Paper Manufacture. Stoneham: Butlerworths MA

    Google Scholar 

  • Lundquist, K.; Kirk, T. K.; Connors, W. J. 1977: Fungal degradation of kraft lignin and lignin sulfonates prepared from synthetic 14C-lignins. Arch. Microbiol. 112: 291–296

    Google Scholar 

  • Messner, K.; Ertler, G.; Jaklin-Farcher, S. 1989: The treatment of bleach plant effluents by the MYCOPOR system. In: Biotechnology in Pulp and Paper Manufacture. Stoneham: Butterworths

    Google Scholar 

  • Mohlin, U.-B. 1987: Massans kvalitet bestämmer papperets funktion. Svensk Papperstidn. 90: 11, 14–20

    Google Scholar 

  • Moo-Young, M.; Chahal D. S.; Vlach, D. 1987: Single cell protein from various chemically pretreated wood substrates using Chaetomium cellulolyticum. Biotechnol Bioengin 20: 107–118

    Google Scholar 

  • Neilson, A. H.; Allard, A.-S.; Hynning, P.-A.; Remberger, M.; Landner, L. 1983: Bacterial methylation of chlorinated phenols and quaiacols: Formation of veratroles from guaiacols and high-molecular-weight chlorinated lignin. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 45: 774–783

    Google Scholar 

  • Pettersson, B.; Yang, J.-L.; Eriksson, K.-E. 1988a: Biotechnical approaches to pulp bleaching. Nordic Pulp Pap Res. J. 3: 198–202

    Google Scholar 

  • Pettersson, B.; Yang, J.-L.; Eriksson, K.-E. 1988b: Characterization of pulp fiber surfaces by lignin specific antibodies. Nordic Pulp Pap Res. J. 3: 152–155

    Google Scholar 

  • Poutanen, K. 1988: Characterization of xylanolytic enzymes for potential applications. Diss. Techn. Res. Centre, Finland. Publications 47

  • Reese, E. T.; Shibata, Y. 1965: β-Mannanases of fungi. Can. J. Microbiol. 11: 167–183

    Google Scholar 

  • Sarkanen, K. V.; Ludwig, C. H. 1971: Definition and nomenclature. In: Sarkanen, K. V.; Ludwig, C. H. (eds.), Lignin. Ocurrcnce, formation, structure, and reactions. New York: Wiley-Interscience

    Google Scholar 

  • Särner, E. 1986: Pilot and full-scale anaerobic-aerobic treatment of mixed wastewater from a sulphite pulp mill and a cellulose derivate manufacturing company. In Biotechnology in the Pulp and Paper Industry, Stockholm

  • Teeri, T. T.; Lehtovaara, P.; Kauppinen, S.; Salovuori, I. and Knowles, J. 1987: Homologous domains in Trichoderma reesei cellulolytic enzymes: Gene sequence and expression of cellobiohydroase II. Gene 51: 43–52

    Google Scholar 

  • Thomke S.; Rundgren, M.; Eriksson, S. 1980: Nutritional evaluation of the white-rot fungus Sporotrichum pulverulentum as a feedstuff to rats, pigs, and sheep. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 22: 2285–2303

    Google Scholar 

  • Tien, M.; Kirk, T. K. 1983: Lignin-degrading enzyme from the hymenomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium Burds. Science 221: 661–663

    Google Scholar 

  • Vallander, L.; Eriksson, K.-E. 1987: Enzyme recirculation in saccharification of lignocellulosic materials. Enzyme Microb. Technol. 9: 714–720

    Google Scholar 

  • Velasco, A. A.; Greene, M.; Frostell, B. 1985: Full scale anaerobic-aerobic biological treatment of a semichemical pulping wastewater. In Proceedings, 40th Ind. Waste Conf., Purdue University, 297–304, Ann Arbor Science

  • Westermark, U.; Eriksson, K-E. 1974a: Carbohydrate-dependent enzymic quinone reduction during lignin degradation. Acta Chem. Scand. B28: 204–208

    Google Scholar 

  • Westermark, U.; Eriksson, K-E. 1974b: Cellobiosc: Quinone oxidoreductase, a new wood-degrading enzyme from white-rot fungi. Acta Chem. Scand. B28: 209–214

    Google Scholar 

  • Yang, J.-L.; Pettersson, B.; Eriksson, K.-E. 1988a: Development of bioassays for the characterization of pulp fiber surfaces. I. Characterization of various mechanical pulp fiber surfaces by specific cellulolytic enzymes. Nordic Pulp and Paper Res. J. 3: 19–25

    Google Scholar 

  • Yang, J.-L.; Pettersson, B.; Eriksson, K.-E. 1988b: Development of bioassays for the characterization of pulp fiber surfaces. II. Characterization of various mechanical pulp fiber surfaces by a lignin specific peroxidase. Holzforschung 42: 319–322

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Additional information

Academy lecture presented on May 18, 1989 at the Fourth International Conference on Biotechnology in the Pulp and Paper Industry. Raleigh, NC USA

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Eriksson, K.E.L. Biotechnology in the pulp and paper industry. Wood Sci.Technol. 24, 79–101 (1990). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00225309

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00225309

Keywords

  • Cellulose
  • Carbon Dioxide
  • Lignin
  • Biological Process
  • Humic Substance