Cone photopigments in nocturnal and diurnal procyonids

Summary

Procyonids are small, New World carnivores distributed among some 6 genera. Electroretinogram (ERG) flicker photometry was used to measure the spectra of the cone photopigments for members of two nocturnal species, the raccoon (Procyon lotor) and the kinkajou (Potos flavus), and a diurnal species, the coati (Nasua nasua). Each of the 3 has a class of cone photopigment with maximum sensitivity in the middle to long wavelengths. The spectral positioning of this cone is different for the three. Whereas the raccoon and kinkajou are monochromatic, the diurnal coati is a dichromat having an additional class of cone photopigment with peak sensitivity close to 433 nm.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Abbreviations

ERG :

electroretinogram

SWS :

short wavelength sensitive

References

  1. Cole LW, Long FM (1909) Visual discriminations in raccoons. J Comp Neurol Psychol 19:567–583

    Google Scholar 

  2. Cooper GF, Robson JG (1969) The yellow colour of the lens of the grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis leucotis). J Physiol (London) 203:403–410

    Google Scholar 

  3. Corbet GB, Hill JE (1991) A world list of mammalian species. 3rd edit. Oxford University Press, Oxford

    Google Scholar 

  4. Crescitelli F (1958) The natural history of visual pigments. Ann New York Acad Sci 74:230–255

    Google Scholar 

  5. Dartnall HJA (1975) Assessing the fitness of visual pigments for their photic environment. In: Ali MA (ed) Vision in fishes. Plenum, New York, pp 543–563

    Google Scholar 

  6. Dartnall HJA, Lythgoe JN (1965) The spectral clustering of visual pigments. Vision Res 5:81–100

    Google Scholar 

  7. Diesem C (1975) Carnivore sense organs and common integument. In: Getty R (ed) Sisson and Grossman's the anatomy of domestic animals. 5th edit. W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 1741–1768

    Google Scholar 

  8. Ebrey RG, Honig B (1977) New wavelength-dependent visual pigment nomograms. Vision Res 27:147–151

    Google Scholar 

  9. Ewer RF (1973) The carnivores. Weidenfeld and Nicholson, London

    Google Scholar 

  10. Goldsmith TH (1990) Optimization, constraint and history in the evolution of eyes. Q Rev Biol 65:281–322

    Google Scholar 

  11. Govardovskii VI (1976) Comments on the sensitivity hypothesis. Vision Res 16:1363–1364

    Google Scholar 

  12. Govardovskii VI, Röhlich P, Szel A, Khokhlova TV (1992) Cones in the retina of the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus): An immunocytochemical and electrophysiological study. Vision Res 32:19–27

    Google Scholar 

  13. Gregg FM, Jamison E, Wilkie R, Radinsky T (1927) Are cats, dogs and raccoons color blind? J Comp Psychol 9:379–395

    Google Scholar 

  14. Jacobs GH (1981) Comparative color vision. Academic Press, New York

    Google Scholar 

  15. Jacobs GH, Neitz J (1985) Spectral positioning of mammalian cone pigments. J Opt Soc Am A 2:P23

    Google Scholar 

  16. Jacobs GH, Neitz J (1987) Inheritance of color vision in a New World monkey (Saimiri sciureus). Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84:2545–2549

    Google Scholar 

  17. Jacobs GH, Neitz J, Deegan II JF (1991) Retinal receptors in rodents maximally sensitive to ultraviolet lights. Nature 353:655–656

    Google Scholar 

  18. Jacobs GH, Deegan II JF, Crognale MA, Fenwick JA (1992) Photopigments of dogs and foxes and their implications for canid vision. Visual Neurosci (in press)

  19. Kaufman JH (1962) Ecology and social behavior of the coati, Nasua narica, on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Univ Calif Publ Zool 60:95–222

    Google Scholar 

  20. Kaufman JH (1982) Raccoon and allies. In: Chapman JA, Feldhamer GA (eds) Wild mammals of North America. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, pp 567–585

    Google Scholar 

  21. Lythgoe JN (1991) Evolution of visual behavior. In: Cronly-Dillon JR, Gregory RL (eds) Evolution of the eye and visual system. Boca Raton, CRC Press, pp 3–14

    Google Scholar 

  22. Michels KM, Fisher BE, Johnson Jr JI (1960) Raccoon performance on color discrimination problems. J Comp Physiol Psychol 53:379–380

    Google Scholar 

  23. Neitz J, Jacobs GH (1984) ERG measurements of cone spectral sensitivity in dichromatic monkeys. J Opt Soc Am A 1:1175–1180

    Google Scholar 

  24. Neitz M, Neitz J, Jacobs GH (1991) Spectral tuning of pigments underlying red-green color vision. Science 252:971–974

    Google Scholar 

  25. Nowak RM, Paradiso JL (1983) Walker's Mammals of the World. V II, 4th Edit. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press

    Google Scholar 

  26. Vincent SB (1912) The mammalian eye. J Anim Behav 2:246–255

    Google Scholar 

  27. Walker PL, Cant JGH (1977) A population survey of kinkajous (Potos flavus) in a seasonally dry tropical forest. J Mammal 58:100–102

    Google Scholar 

  28. Walls GL (1942) The vertebrate eye and its adaptive radiation. Bloomfield Hills Michigan, The Cranbrook Institute of Science

    Google Scholar 

  29. Wayne RK, Benvenisti RE, Janczewski DN, O'Brien SJ (1989) Molecular and biochemical evolution of Carnivora. In: Gittleman JL (ed) Carnivore behavior, ecology, and evolution. London, Chapman and Hall, pp 465–494

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Jacobs, G.H., Deegan, J.F. Cone photopigments in nocturnal and diurnal procyonids. J Comp Physiol A 171, 351–358 (1992). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00223965

Download citation

Key words

  • Cone photopigments
  • Electroretinogram flicker photometry
  • Procyonids
  • Dichromacy
  • Monochromacy