, Volume 40, Issue 1–2, pp 73–84 | Cite as

Vision 2020: Towards an environmentally sound and sustainable development of freshwater resources in Malaysia

  • Ho S. C. 
I. General Impacts of Human Population Growth on Inland Waters (b) Philippines, Malaysia, New Zealand, Australia


Malaysia has a climate of high humidity, high temperature and abundant rainfall. Rivers supply about 97% of the country's total water needs while ground water accounts for the rest. About 40% of the treated water is lost through man-caused leakages. With a population of 18.3 million people, the total annual domestic, industrial and irrigation water demand is about 11.6 x 106 MI. This figure is projected to rise to 15.2 x 106 MI by year 2000. At present, the total daily water demand is about 4,979 MI and the production capacity is 6,513 MI. Water use and misuse now strain the nation's fragile aquatic environment and natural ecosystems. Current water resource management priorities include water quality improvement, river rehabilitation to restore over-channalized or polluted rivers and development of the inland fisheries potential especially in large man-made reservoirs. A River Basin Information System has been developed to provide integrated information on catchment characteristics, landuse, population and socio-economic profile, river flow, pollution sources, water quality classification, and aquatic biota. Vision 2020 challenges call for a long-term perspective in inland water resource management. Critical post-audits of largescale development and strategic research aimed at alternative and interacting patterns of landwater use are urgently needed.


Malaysia Water Demand Water Resource Management Water Quality Improvement Catchment Characteristic 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ackers, P.; Thompson, G.: Resrvoir sedimentation and influence of flushing. In: Bathurst, T. C. R.; Heys, R. D. (eds.), Sediment Transport in Gravel-Bed Rivers. Wiley, Chichester, UK 1987.Google Scholar
  2. Bathia, R.; Falkenmark, M.: Water resource policies and the urban poor: Innovative thinking and policy imperatives. Paper presented at the Dublin International Conference on Water and the Environment, Dublin, Ireland, 26–31 January 1992.Google Scholar
  3. Brookes, A.: Channelized Rivers: Perspectives for Environmental Management. Wiley, Chichester, UK 1988.Google Scholar
  4. Falkenmark, M.: The massive water scarcity now threatening Africa — Why isn't it being addressed? Ambio 18(2), 112–118 (1989).Google Scholar
  5. Falkenmark, M.; Lindh, G.: Water and economic development. In: Gleick, P. H. (ed.), Water in Crisis: A Guide to the World's Fresh Water Resources, pp. 80–91. Oxford University Press, Oxford 1993.Google Scholar
  6. Foster, S. S. D.: Groundwater conditions and problems characteristic of the humid tropics. In: Gladwell, J. S. (ed.), Hydrology of Warm Humid Tropics. Proceedings of IAHS-UNESCO Symposium, Yokohama, Japan, 13-15 July 1993. IAHS Publication No. 216, 443–449 (1993).Google Scholar
  7. Gleick, P. H.: Water in Crises: A Guide to the World's Fresh Water Resources. Oxford University Press, Oxford 1993.Google Scholar
  8. Ho, S. C.: Status of limnological research and training in Malaysia. Mitt. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 24, 129–145 (1994).Google Scholar
  9. IWPDC: International Water Power and Dam Construction Handbook 1991. Reed Enterprise, Sutton, UK 1991.Google Scholar
  10. Luiten, J. P. A.: The ecological basis for catchment management. A new Dutch project: The water systsem explorations. In: Harper, D. M.; Ferguson, A. D. J. (eds.), The Ecological Basis for River Management, pp. 453–473. Wiley, Chichester, UK 1995.Google Scholar
  11. Maksimovic, C.; Todorovic, Z.; Braga Jr. B. P. F.: Urban drainage problems in the humid tropics. In: Gladwell, J. S. (ed.), Hydrology of Warm Humid Tropics. Proceedings of IAHS-UNESCO Symposium, Yokohama, Japan, 13-15 July 1993. IAHS Publication No. 216, 377–401 (1993).Google Scholar
  12. Massinga, A. V. R.: Dam developments and their environmental effects. In: Matiza, A.; Chabwela, H. N. (eds.), Wetlands Conservation Conference for Southern Africa, pp. 43–55. Proceedings of SADCC Wetlands Conference, Gaborone, Botswana, 3–5 June 1991 (1992).Google Scholar
  13. McVey, J. P.: Aquaculture in mangrove wetlands: A perspective from southeast Asia. In: Hook, D. D. et al. (eds.), The Ecology and Management of Wetlands, Vol. 2, pp. 303–316. Croom Helm, London 1988.Google Scholar
  14. Meadows, D. H.; Meadows, D. L.; Randers, J.: Beyond the Limits: Global Collapse or Sustainable Future. Earthscan Publications Ltd., London, UK 1992.Google Scholar
  15. Petts, G. E.: Impounded Rivers: Perspective for Ecological Management. Wiley, London 1984.Google Scholar
  16. Scott, D. A.; Poole, C. M.: A status overview of Asian wetlands. No. 53, Asian Wetlands Bureau, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 1989.Google Scholar
  17. Sixth Malaysia Plan: Review of the Sixth Malaysia Plan. Prime Minister's Department, Malayisa (1993).Google Scholar
  18. Ward, J. A.; Standford, J. V.: The Ecology of Regulated Streams. Plenum Press, New York 1979.Google Scholar
  19. Winpenny, J.: Managing Water as an Economic Resource. Routledge Publication, London 1994.Google Scholar
  20. World Health Organisation: World Water: The International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade Directory. 3rd. ed. Thomas Telford Ltd., London 1987.Google Scholar
  21. Young, G. J.; Dooge, J. C. I.; Rodda, J. C.: Global Water Resource Issues. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1992.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ho S. C. 
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Biological SciencesUniversiti Sains MalaysiaMalaysia

Personalised recommendations