Skip to main content
Log in

Infraspecific differentiation of garlic (Allium sativum L.) by isozyme and RAPD markers

  • Published:
Theoretical and Applied Genetics Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is a sterile species of considerable variability with respect to morphological and physiological features. The crop presumably originated in West to Middle Asia from its progenitor A. longicuspis Regel and was transported from there to the Mediterranean and other areas of cultivation. In order to clarify older classification schemes, often based on small or biased collections, we used isozyme and RAPD markers to analyze and structure a collection of 300 accessions, many of which were gathered in Middle Asia close to the assumed center of origin. All of the accessions were first investigated with isozymes, and 48 were selected for a RAPD analysis. The resulting molecular markers were used to construct neighbor-joining dendrograms to group the accessions and to indicate the genetic distances between them. Based on the dendrograms and in conjunction with some morphological features, we propose an infraspecific classification of garlic with four major groups. In agreement with the results of other workers, A. longicuspis lies within the range of the species A. sativum. Numerous forms with varying degrees of domestication are part of our longicuspis group, from which presumably the more derived cultivar groups originated. The origin and spreading of the crop are discussed with respect to the geographical distribution and the genetic distances of the accessions.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Blanchard MM, Taillon-Miller P, Nowotny P, Nowotny V (1993) PCR buffer optimization with uniform temperature regimen to facilitate automation. PCR Methods Applic 1:234–240

    Google Scholar 

  • Bottéro J (1980) Knoblauch. In: Edzard DO (ed) Reallexikon der Assyriologie und vorderasiatischen Archäologie vol 6 (in French). Gruyter, Berlin, pp 39–41.

    Google Scholar 

  • Burkill IH (1966) A dictionary of the economic products of the Malay Peninsula, 2nd edn. Ministry Agric Co-op, Kuala Lumpur

    Google Scholar 

  • Chromátová S, Turková V, Klozová E (1990) Protein complex and esterase isoenzyme patterns of Allium sativum L. cultivars and clones-regenerants. Biol Plant 32:321–331

    Google Scholar 

  • Etoh T (1986) Fertility of the garlic clones collected in Soviet Central Asia. J Jpn Soc Hortic Sci 55:312–319

    Google Scholar 

  • Etoh T, Ogura H (1981) Peroxidase isozymes in the leaves of various clones of garlic, Allium sativum L. Mem Fac Agric Kagoshima Univ 17:71–77

    Google Scholar 

  • Etoh T, Kojima T, Matsuzoe N (1992) Fertile garlic clones collected in Caucasia. In: Hanelt P, Hammer K, Knüpffer H (eds) The genus Allium-taxonomic problems and genetic recources. (Proc Int Symp.) IPK, Gatersleben, Germany, pp 49–54

    Google Scholar 

  • Ford-Lloyd B, Jackson M (1986) Plant genetic recources: an introduction to their conservation and use. Edward Arnold, London

    Google Scholar 

  • Germer R (1989) Die Pflanzenmaterialien aus dem Grab des Tutanchamun. In: Eggebrecht A, Schmitz B (eds) Hildesheimer Ägyptologische Beiträge. Pehzaeus-Museum, Hildesheim, no 28:1–94

    Google Scholar 

  • Helm J (1956) Die zu Würz- und Speisezwecken kultivierten Arten der Gattung Allium L. Kulturpflanze 4:130–180

    Google Scholar 

  • Hems J (1951) Garlic through the centuries. Veg News 30:100–101

    Google Scholar 

  • Katayama H, Sasakuma T, Ogihara Y (1991) Physical map of chloroplast DNA of the onion Allium cepa L., showing the location of photosynthesis-related genes. Jpn J Genet 66:421–431

    Google Scholar 

  • Kazakova AA (1978) Česnok (Allium sativum L.) In: Brezhnev DD (ed) Kul'turnaja flora SSSR, vol 10 (in Russian). Kolos, Leningrad, Russia, pp 71–77

    Google Scholar 

  • Kollmann F (1984) Allium. In: Davis PH (ed) Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean islands, vol 8. University Press, Edinburgh, pp 98–211

    Google Scholar 

  • Lallemand J, Messiaen CM, Briand F, Etoh T (1995) Delimitation of varietal groups in garlic (Allium sativum L.) by morphological and physiological characters, verified by the isozyme method. In: First Int Symp Edible Alliaceae. (Abstr, p 15). Acta Hortic 137(in press)

  • Messiaen CM, Cohat JC, Leroux JP, Pichon M, Beyries A (1993) Les allium alimentaires reproduits par voie végétative. INRA, Paris

    Google Scholar 

  • Pooler MR, Simon PW (1993) Characterization and classification of isozyme and morphological variation in a diverse collection of garlic clones. Euphytica 68:121–130

    Google Scholar 

  • Prokhanov JI (1930) About culinary alliums of China and Japan — a critical literature view (in Russian). Bull Appl Bot Genet Plant Breed 24:123–183

    Google Scholar 

  • Raelson JV, Grant WF (1989) An isoenzyme study in the genus Lotus (Fabaceae). Experimental protocols and genetic basis of electrophoretic phenotype. Theor Appl Genet 77:595–607

    Google Scholar 

  • Regel E (1875) Alliorum adhuc cognitorum monographia. Acta Horti petrop 3, 2:1–266

    Google Scholar 

  • Saghai-Maroof MA, Soliman KM, Jorgensen RA, Allard RW (1984) Ribosomal DNA spacer-length polymorphisms in barley: Mendelian inheritance, chromosomal location, and population dynamics. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 81:8014–8018

    Google Scholar 

  • Saitou N, Nei M (1987) The neigbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol Biol Evol 4:406–425

    Google Scholar 

  • Sambrook J, Fritsch EF, Maniatis T (1989) Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual. Cold Spring Habor Laboratory Press, Cold Springer Harbor, N.Y.

    Google Scholar 

  • Siqueira WJ, Medina Filho HP, Salles Lisbão R, Fornasier JB (1985) Caracterizaçào isoenzimática e morfológica de clones e introduções de alho. Bragantia 44:357–374

    Google Scholar 

  • Soltis DE, Haufler CH, Darrow DC, Gastony GJ (1983) Starch gel electrophoresis of ferns: a compilation of grinding buffers, gel and electrode buffers, and staining schedules. Am Fern J 73:9–27

    Google Scholar 

  • Titterington R (1993) Zestful garlic. The Garden 118:502–503

    Google Scholar 

  • Van de Peer Y, de Wachter R (1993) TREECON: a software package for the construction and drawing of evolutinary trees. Comput Appl Biosci 9:177–182

    Google Scholar 

  • Vavilov NI (1935) The phyto-geographical basis for plant breeding [first published in Russian, translated by Löve D (1992)]. In: Dorofeyev VF (ed) Vavilov NI Origin and geography of cultivated plants (English edn). University Press, Cambridge, pp 316–366

    Google Scholar 

  • Vvedenskij AI (1935) Allium L. In: Komarov VL (ed) Flora SSSR, vol 4. Izd Akademija Nauk, Leningrad, pp 112–280

    Google Scholar 

  • Wendel JF, Weeden NF (1989) Visualisation and interpretation of plant isozymes. In: Soltis DE, Soltis PS (eds) Isozymes in plant biology. Dioscorides Press. Portland, Ore., pp 5–45

    Google Scholar 

  • Wendelbo P (1971) Alliaceae. In: Rechinger KH (ed) Flora Iranica. Akad. Druck- und Verlagsanstalt, Graz, cont no 76, pp 1–100

    Google Scholar 

  • Wilkie SE, Isaac PG, Slater RJ (1993) Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers for genetic analysis in Allium. Theor Appl Genet 86:497–504

    Google Scholar 

  • Williams GK, Kubelik AR, Livak KL, Rafalski JA, Tingey SV (1990) DNA polymorphisms amplified by arbitrary primers are useful as genetic markers. Nucleic Acids Res 18:6531–6535

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Additional information

Communicated by G. Wenzel

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Maaß, H.I., Klaas, M. Infraspecific differentiation of garlic (Allium sativum L.) by isozyme and RAPD markers. Theoret. Appl. Genetics 91, 89–97 (1995). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00220863

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00220863

Key words

Navigation