Advertisement

Cell and Tissue Research

, Volume 235, Issue 2, pp 393–402 | Cite as

Some evidence for the ampullary organs in the European cave salamander Proteus anguinus (Urodela, Amphibia)

  • Lili Istenič
  • Boris Bulog
Article

Summary

The multicellular epithelial organs in Proteus anguinus, which Bugnion (1873) assumed to be developing neuromasts, have been analyzed by lightand electron-microscopy. Their fundamental structure consists of single ampullae with sensory and accessory cells with apical parts that extend into the pit of the ampulla, and of a short jelly-filled canal connecting the ampulla pit with the surface of the skin. The organs are located intra-epithelially and are supported by a tiny dermal papilla. The cell elements of sensory epithelium are apically linked together by tight junctions. The free apical surface of the sensory cell bears several hundred densely packed stereocilia-like microvilli whereas the basal surface displays afferent neurosensory junctions with a pronounced round synaptic body. The compact uniform organization of the apical microvillous part shows a hexagonal pattern. A basal body was found in some sensory cells whereas a kinocilium was observed only in a single cell. The accessory cells have their free surface differentiated in a sparsely distributed and frequently-forked microvilli. The canal wall is built of two or three layers of tightly coalescent flat cells bordering on the lumen with branching microvilli. The ultrastructure of the content of the ampulla pit is presented.

In the discussion stress is laid on the peculiarities of the natural history of Proteus anguinus that support the view that the morphologically-identified ampullary organs are electroreceptive. The structural characteristics of ampullary receptor cells are dealt with from the viewpoint of functional morphology and in the light of evolutionary hypotheses of ampullary organs.

Key words

Ampullary organs Electroreception Proteusanguinus (Amphibia) Lightand electron-microscopy 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bennedetti E (1933) Il cervello e i nervi cranici del Proteus anguineus Laur. Mem Ist Ital Speleol, Trieste 11:1–79Google Scholar
  2. Bennett MVL (1971) Electroreception. In: Hoar WS, Randall DJ (eds) Sensory system and electric organs. Academic Press, New York London, 493–574Google Scholar
  3. Benshalom G, Flock Å (1980) Ultrastructure of the synapses in the lateral line canal organ. Acta Otolaryngol 90:161–174Google Scholar
  4. Bodznick D, Northcutt RG (1981) Electroreception in lampreys: Evidence that the earliest vertebrates were electroreceptive. Science 212:465–467Google Scholar
  5. Briegleb W (1962) Zur Biologie und Ökologie des Grottenolms (Proteus anguinus Laur. 1768). Z Morphol Ökol Tiere 51:273–334Google Scholar
  6. Briegleb W (1963) Zur Kenntnis eines Ökotops von Proteus anguinus Laur. 1768. Poročila Acta Carsologica 3:151–196Google Scholar
  7. Briegleb W, Schwarzkopff J (1961) Verhaltensweisen des Grottenolms (Proteus anguinus Laur.) und das Problem des Fortpflanzungsraumes. Sond Naturwiss 22:1–3Google Scholar
  8. Bugnion E (1873) Recherches sur les organes sensitifs qui se trouvent dans l'épiderme du protée et de l'axolotl. Bull Soc Vaud SC Nat Laussane 12:259–316Google Scholar
  9. Durand JP (1971) Recherches sur l'appareil visuel du protée, Proteus anguinus Laurenti, Urodele hypogé. Ann Speleol 26:497–824Google Scholar
  10. Flock Å, Jørgensen JM (1974) The ultrastructure of lateral line sense organs in the juvenile salamander Ambystoma mexicanum. Cell Tissue Res 152:283–292Google Scholar
  11. Fritzsch B (1981) The pattern of lateral line afferents in urodeles. A horseradish-peroxidase study. Cell Tissue Res 218:581–594Google Scholar
  12. Hetherington TE, Wake MH (1979) The lateral line system in larval Ichthyophis (Amphibia, Gymnophiona). Zoomorphology 93:209–225Google Scholar
  13. Istenič L (1971) Izhodišče za reševanje ekološke problematike človeške ribice (Proteus anguinus Laur. 1768). (Approach to the solution of the problem of the ecology of Proteus). Biol Vestn 19:125–130Google Scholar
  14. Istenič L (1979) Pomanjkanje kisika v Putickovem jezeru Planinske jame. (The oxygen deficit in Putick lake of Planinska jama.) Acta Carsol VIII/8:335–352Google Scholar
  15. Istenič L (1982) Point de départ pour la recherche de l'adaption du Protée. Bull Soc Herp Fr 22:9–16Google Scholar
  16. Istenič L, Bulog B (1976) Anatomske raziskave membranskega labirinta pri močerilu (Proteus anguinus Laurenti, Urodela, Amphibia). (Anatomical investigations of membranous labyrinth in proteus (Proteus anguinus Laurenti, Urodela, Amphibia)). Razprave-Dissertationes XIX/2:21–59Google Scholar
  17. Istenič L, Bulog B (1979) Strukturne diferenciacije ustno-žrelne sluznice pri močerilu (Proteus anguinus Laur.). (The structural differentiation of buccal and pharyngeal mucous membrane of the Proteus). Biol Vestn 27:1–12Google Scholar
  18. Lissman H (1967) Some general comments. In: Cahn P (ed) Lateral line detectors. Indiane Univ Press, Blomington, 411–414Google Scholar
  19. Mullinger AM (1964) The fine structure of ampullary electric receptors in Amiurus. Proc R Soc Lond [Biol] 160:345–359Google Scholar
  20. Parzefall J (1976) Die Rolle der chemischen Information im Verhalten des Grottenolms Proteus anguinus Laur. (Proteidae, Urodela). Z Tierpsychol 42:29–49Google Scholar
  21. Parzefall J, Durand JP, Richard B (1980) Chemical communication in Necturus maculosus and his cave living relative Proteus anguinus (Proteidae, Urodela). Z Tierpsychol 53:133–138Google Scholar
  22. Peters RC, Bretschneider F (1972) Electric phenomena in habitat of the catfish Ictalurus nebulosus LeS. J Comp Physiol 81:345–362Google Scholar
  23. Peters RC, Buwalda RJA (1972) Frequency responce of the electroreceptors (“Small Pit Organs”) of the catfish, Ictalurus nebulosus LeS. J Comp Physiol 79:29–38Google Scholar
  24. Pfeiffer W (1968) Die Fahrenholzschen Organe der Dipnoi und Brachiopterygii. Z Zellforsch 90:127–147Google Scholar
  25. Roth A (1969) Elektrische Sinnesorgane beim Zwergwels Ictalurus nebulosus (Ameiurus nebulosus). Z vergl Physiologie 65:368–388Google Scholar
  26. Roth A (1971) Zur Funktionsweise der Elektrorezeptoren in der Haut von Welsen (Ictalurus): Der Einfluss der Ionen in Süsswasser. Z vergl Physiologie 75:303–322Google Scholar
  27. Roth A, Tscharntke H (1976) Ultrastructure of the ampullary electroreceptors in lungfish and Brachiopterygii. Cell Tissue Res 173:95–108Google Scholar
  28. Sato A (1974) Electron microscopic study of the developing lateral line organ in the embryo of the newt, Triturus pyrrhogaster. Anat Rec 86:565–584Google Scholar
  29. Srivastava CBL, Seal M (1981) Electroreceptors in Indian catfish teleosts. In: Szabó T, Czéh G (eds) Sensory physiology of aquatic lower vertebrates. Adv Physiol Sci Vol 31:1–11, Pergamon Press, Akadémiai KiadóGoogle Scholar
  30. Szabó T (1974) Anatomy of the specialized lateral line organs of electroreception. In: Fessard A (ed) Handbook of sensory physiology, Vol III/3. Springer, Berlin, 13–58Google Scholar
  31. Szabó T, Fessard A (1974) Physiology of electroreceptors. In: Fessard A (ed) Handbook of sensory physiology, Vol III/3, Springer, Berlin, 59–124Google Scholar
  32. Thinés G, Durand JP (1973) Connaissances actuelles sur l'appareil sensoriel de la ligne latérale chez les vertébrés cavernicoles aquatiques. Ann Speleol 28:271–282Google Scholar
  33. Thomson KS (1977) On the individual history of cosmine and a possible electroreceptive function of the pore-canal system in fossil fishes. In: Andrews SM, Miles RS, Walker AD (eds) Problems in vertebrate evolution. Academic Press, New York, 247–270Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lili Istenič
    • 1
  • Boris Bulog
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biology and Institute of BiologyEdvard Kardelj University of LjubljanaYugoslavia

Personalised recommendations